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2020.08.29 18:22 IdolA29Augl How to Start Da-ting When Yo-u Are G-ay

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2020.08.29 18:20 IdolA29Augl Fa-st G-ay Spe-ed Da-ting Minn-esota

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2020.08.06 18:16 jpeg747 Analysis Paralysis

I am encountering some analysis paralysis when it comes to choosing my next vehicle... Here are the main few things I am looking for:
- Good MPG
- Good infotainment system with CarPlay (I currently lease a 2018 Cadillac ATS and I hate CUE with a passion)
- More space would be nice. I'm looking for subcompact or larger (Again, coming from ATS, so any more space is a plus)
- AWD (I live in MI and commute every day so this would be nice)
- $30K and under, if possible but I'm willing to go over a bit
I test drove a few vehicles and here are my thoughts:

Hyundai Kona 1.6T AWD
- Enjoyed the turbo, not sold on the premium price tag for the addition
- I'm unsure on dct. The ride was a bit lurchy
- Has the good infotainment system I want
- Good MPG, size is fine for me, my girlfriend and doggo

Hyundai Tucson 2.4L AWD
- Felt like I was driving a whale, but no turbo, so that's to be expected
- Good infotainment system
- Not so great MPG
- Probably more space than what I need

Toyota RAV4 Hybrid
- Drove very well, was quite peppy with that electric motor
- Great MPG
- Again, probably more space than what I need
- Infotainment seems dated, but I use CarPlay anyways, so I'm unsure if this is an issue
- Cost seems high for the trims higher than LE

Subaru Outback
- Too big
- Ugly infotainment system touchscreen and way too big
- Standard AWD, which is nice
- Turbo trim is way out of my price range

Subaru Forester (current front runner)
- Drove well enough for me, despite lack of pick-up (I'm realizing I might have to just get over this)
- Space is also probably more than what I need
- Infotainment system seems... cluttered to me. There's also a weird "bug" where when there is a phone call over bluetooth, the screen in the dashboard shows "call in progress" and hides the current speed.
- Standard AWD
- I can see literally everything while driving this car. 360 glass window, which is very good for my anxiety!
- I get the SUV everyone is telling me to get

Regarding the Forester, the fact that I've read not so great things about the Starlink system (and the app on the iOS store seems like it was review bombed) is a big negative to me, as silly as that sounds. I really do not want to drive another car with another bad infotainment system...
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2020.06.26 15:03 freedomforg The manhattan project thing 2/5

Patterson approved the acquisition of the site on 25 November 1942, authorizing $440,000 for the purchase of the site of 54,000 acres (22,000 ha), all but 8,900 acres (3,600 ha) of which were already owned by the Federal Government.[95] Secretary of Agriculture Claude R. Wickard granted use of some 45,100 acres (18,300 ha) of United States Forest Service land to the War Department "for so long as the military necessity continues".[96] The need for land, for a new road, and later for a right of way for a 25-mile (40 km) power line, eventually brought wartime land purchases to 45,737 acres (18,509.1 ha), but only $414,971 was spent.[95] Construction was contracted to the M. M. Sundt Company of Tucson, Arizona, with Willard C. Kruger and Associates of Santa Fe, New Mexico, as architect and engineer. Work commenced in December 1942. Groves initially allocated $300,000 for construction, three times Oppenheimer's estimate, with a planned completion date of 15 March 1943. It soon became clear that the scope of Project Y was greater than expected, and by the time Sundt finished on 30 November 1943, over $7 million had been spent.[97]
Map of Los Alamos site, New Mexico, 1943–45
Because it was secret, Los Alamos was referred to as "Site Y" or "the Hill".[98] Birth certificates of babies born in Los Alamos during the war listed their place of birth as PO Box 1663 in Santa Fe.[99] Initially Los Alamos was to have been a military laboratory with Oppenheimer and other researchers commissioned into the Army. Oppenheimer went so far as to order himself a lieutenant colonel's uniform, but two key physicists, Robert Bacher and Isidor Rabi, balked at the idea. Conant, Groves and Oppenheimer then devised a compromise whereby the laboratory was operated by the University of California under contract to the War Department.[100]
Chicago
Main article: Metallurgical Laboratory
An Army-OSRD council on 25 June 1942 decided to build a pilot plant for plutonium production in Red Gate Woods southwest of Chicago. In July, Nichols arranged for a lease of 1,025 acres (415 ha) from the Cook County Forest Preserve District, and Captain James F. Grafton was appointed Chicago area engineer. It soon became apparent that the scale of operations was too great for the area, and it was decided to build the plant at Oak Ridge, and keep a research and testing facility in Chicago.[101][102]
Delays in establishing the plant in Red Gate Woods led Compton to authorize the Metallurgical Laboratory to construct the first nuclear reactor beneath the bleachers of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago. The reactor required an enormous amount of graphite blocks and uranium pellets. At the time, there was a limited source of pure uranium. Frank Spedding of Iowa State University were able to produce only two short tons of pure uranium. Additional three short tons of uranium metal was supplied by Westinghouse Lamp Plant which was produced in a rush with makeshift process. A large square balloon was constructed by Goodyear Tire to encase the reactor.[103][104] On 2 December 1942, a team led by Enrico Fermi initiated the first artificial[note 3] self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction in an experimental reactor known as Chicago Pile-1.[106] The point at which a reaction becomes self-sustaining became known as "going critical". Compton reported the success to Conant in Washington, D.C., by a coded phone call, saying, "The Italian navigator [Fermi] has just landed in the new world."[107][note 4]
In January 1943, Grafton's successor, Major Arthur V. Peterson, ordered Chicago Pile-1 dismantled and reassembled at Red Gate Woods, as he regarded the operation of a reactor as too hazardous for a densely populated area.[108] At the Argonne site, Chicago Pile-3, the first heavy water reactor, went critical on 15 May 1944.[109][110] After the war, the operations that remained at Red Gate moved to the new site of the Argonne National Laboratory about 6 miles (9.7 km) away.[102]
Hanford
Main article: Hanford Site
By December 1942 there were concerns that even Oak Ridge was too close to a major population center (Knoxville) in the unlikely event of a major nuclear accident. Groves recruited DuPont in November 1942 to be the prime contractor for the construction of the plutonium production complex. DuPont was offered a standard cost plus fixed-fee contract, but the President of the company, Walter S. Carpenter, Jr., wanted no profit of any kind, and asked for the proposed contract to be amended to explicitly exclude the company from acquiring any patent rights. This was accepted, but for legal reasons a nominal fee of one dollar was agreed upon. After the war, DuPont asked to be released from the contract early, and had to return 33 cents.[111]
A large crowd of sullen looking workmen at a counter where two women are writing. Some of the workmen are wearing identify photographs of themselves on their hats.
Hanford workers collect their paychecks at the Western Union office.
DuPont recommended that the site be located far from the existing uranium production facility at Oak Ridge.[112] In December 1942, Groves dispatched Colonel Franklin Matthias and DuPont engineers to scout potential sites. Matthias reported that Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, was "ideal in virtually all respects". It was isolated and near the Columbia River, which could supply sufficient water to cool the reactors that would produce the plutonium. Groves visited the site in January and established the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW), codenamed "Site W".[113]
Under Secretary Patterson gave his approval on 9 February, allocating $5 million for the acquisition of 40,000 acres (16,000 ha) of land in the area. The federal government relocated some 1,500 residents of White Bluffs and Hanford, and nearby settlements, as well as the Wanapum and other tribes using the area. A dispute arose with farmers over compensation for crops, which had already been planted before the land was acquired. Where schedules allowed, the Army allowed the crops to be harvested, but this was not always possible.[113] The land acquisition process dragged on and was not completed before the end of the Manhattan Project in December 1946.[114]
The dispute did not delay work. Although progress on the reactor design at Metallurgical Laboratory and DuPont was not sufficiently advanced to accurately predict the scope of the project, a start was made in April 1943 on facilities for an estimated 25,000 workers, half of whom were expected to live on-site. By July 1944, some 1,200 buildings had been erected and nearly 51,000 people were living in the construction camp. As area engineer, Matthias exercised overall control of the site.[115] At its peak, the construction camp was the third most populous town in Washington state.[116] Hanford operated a fleet of over 900 buses, more than the city of Chicago.[117] Like Los Alamos and Oak Ridge, Richland was a gated community with restricted access, but it looked more like a typical wartime American boomtown: the military profile was lower, and physical security elements like high fences, towers, and guard dogs were less evident.[118]
Canadian sites
Main article: Montreal Laboratory
British Columbia
Cominco had produced electrolytic hydrogen at Trail, British Columbia, since 1930. Urey suggested in 1941 that it could produce heavy water. To the existing $10 million plant consisting of 3,215 cells consuming 75 MW of hydroelectric power, secondary electrolysis cells were added to increase the deuterium concentration in the water from 2.3% to 99.8%. For this process, Hugh Taylor of Princeton developed a platinum-on-carbon catalyst for the first three stages while Urey developed a nickel-chromia one for the fourth stage tower. The final cost was $2.8 million. The Canadian Government did not officially learn of the project until August 1942. Trail's heavy water production started in January 1944 and continued until 1956. Heavy water from Trail was used for Chicago Pile 3, the first reactor using heavy water and natural uranium, which went critical on 15 May 1944.[119]
Ontario
The Chalk River, Ontario, site was established to rehouse the Allied effort at the Montreal Laboratory away from an urban area. A new community was built at Deep River, Ontario, to provide residences and facilities for the team members. The site was chosen for its proximity to the industrial manufacturing area of Ontario and Quebec, and proximity to a rail head adjacent to a large military base, Camp Petawawa. Located on the Ottawa River, it had access to abundant water. The first director of the new laboratory was Hans von Halban. He was replaced by John Cockcroft in May 1944, who in turn was succeeded by Bennett Lewis in September 1946. A pilot reactor known as ZEEP (zero-energy experimental pile) became the first Canadian reactor, and the first to be completed outside the United States, when it went critical in September 1945, ZEEP remained in use by researchers until 1970.[120] A larger 10 MW NRX reactor, which was designed during the war, was completed and went critical in July 1947.[119]
Northwest Territories
The Eldorado Mine at Port Radium was a source of uranium ore.[121]
Heavy water sites
Main article: P-9 Project
Although DuPont's preferred designs for the nuclear reactors were helium cooled and used graphite as a moderator, DuPont still expressed an interest in using heavy water as a backup, in case the graphite reactor design proved infeasible for some reason. For this purpose, it was estimated that 3 short tons (2.7 t) of heavy water would be required per month. The P-9 Project was the government's code name for the heavy water production program. As the plant at Trail, which was then under construction, could produce 0.5 short tons (0.45 t) per month, additional capacity was required. Groves therefore authorized DuPont to establish heavy water facilities at the Morgantown Ordnance Works, near Morgantown, West Virginia; at the Wabash River Ordnance Works, near Dana and Newport, Indiana; and at the Alabama Ordnance Works, near Childersburg and Sylacauga, Alabama. Although known as Ordnance Works and paid for under Ordnance Department contracts, they were built and operated by the Army Corps of Engineers. The American plants used a process different from Trail's; heavy water was extracted by distillation, taking advantage of the slightly higher boiling point of heavy water.[122][123]
Uranium
Ore
The key raw material for the project was uranium, which was used as fuel for the reactors, as feed that was transformed into plutonium, and, in its enriched form, in the atomic bomb itself. There were four known major deposits of uranium in 1940: in Colorado, in northern Canada, in Joachimsthal in Czechoslovakia, and in the Belgian Congo.[124] All but Joachimstal were in allied hands. A November 1942 survey determined that sufficient quantities of uranium were available to satisfy the project's requirements.[125] Nichols arranged with the State Department for export controls to be placed on uranium oxide and negotiated for the purchase of 1,200 short tons (1,100 t) of uranium ore from the Belgian Congo that was being stored in a warehouse on Staten Island and the remaining stocks of mined ore stored in the Congo. He negotiated with Eldorado Gold Mines for the purchase of ore from its refinery in Port Hope, Ontario, and its shipment in 100-ton lots. The Canadian government subsequently bought up the company's stock until it acquired a controlling interest.[126]
While these purchases assured a sufficient supply to meet wartime needs, the American and British leaders concluded that it was in their countries' interest to gain control of as much of the world's uranium deposits as possible. The richest source of ore was the Shinkolobwe mine in the Belgian Congo, but it was flooded and closed. Nichols unsuccessfully attempted to negotiate its reopening and the sale of the entire future output to the United States with Edgar Sengier, the director of the company that owned the mine, Union Minière du Haut Katanga.[127] The matter was then taken up by the Combined Policy Committee. As 30 percent of Union Minière's stock was controlled by British interests, the British took the lead in negotiations. Sir John Anderson and Ambassador John Winant hammered out a deal with Sengier and the Belgian government in May 1944 for the mine to be reopened and 1,720 short tons (1,560 t) of ore to be purchased at $1.45 a pound.[128] To avoid dependence on the British and Canadians for ore, Groves also arranged for the purchase of US Vanadium Corporation's stockpile in Uravan, Colorado. Uranium mining in Colorado yielded about 800 short tons (730 t) of ore.[129]
Mallinckrodt Incorporated in St. Louis, Missouri, took the raw ore and dissolved it in nitric acid to produce uranyl nitrate. Ether was then added in a liquid–liquid extraction process to separate the impurities from the uranyl nitrate. This was then heated to form uranium trioxide, which was reduced to highly pure uranium dioxide.[130] By July 1942, Mallinckrodt was producing a ton of highly pure oxide a day, but turning this into uranium metal initially proved more difficult for contractors Westinghouse and Metal Hydrides.[131] Production was too slow and quality was unacceptably low. A special branch of the Metallurgical Laboratory was established at Iowa State College in Ames, Iowa, under Frank Spedding to investigate alternatives. This became known as the Ames Project, and its Ames process became available in 1943.[132]
Uranium refining at Ames
A "bomb" (pressure vessel) containing uranium halide and sacrificial metal, probably magnesium, being lowered into a furnace
After the reaction, the interior of a bomb coated with remnant slag
A uranium metal "biscuit" from the reduction reaction
Isotope separation
Natural uranium consists of 99.3% uranium-238 and 0.7% uranium-235, but only the latter is fissile. The chemically identical uranium-235 has to be physically separated from the more plentiful isotope. Various methods were considered for uranium enrichment, most of which was carried out at Oak Ridge.[133]
The most obvious technology, the centrifuge, failed, but electromagnetic separation, gaseous diffusion, and thermal diffusion technologies were all successful and contributed to the project. In February 1943, Groves came up with the idea of using the output of some plants as the input for others.[134]
Contour map of the Oak Ridge area. There is a river to the south, while the township is in the north.
Oak Ridge hosted several uranium separation technologies. The Y-12 electromagnetic separation plant is in the upper right. The K-25 and K-27 gaseous diffusion plants are in the lower left, near the S-50 thermal diffusion plant. (The X-10 was for plutonium production.)
Centrifuges
The centrifuge process was regarded as the only promising separation method in April 1942.[135] Jesse Beams had developed such a process at the University of Virginia during the 1930s, but had encountered technical difficulties. The process required high rotational speeds, but at certain speeds harmonic vibrations developed that threatened to tear the machinery apart. It was therefore necessary to accelerate quickly through these speeds. In 1941 he began working with uranium hexafluoride, the only known gaseous compound of uranium, and was able to separate uranium-235. At Columbia, Urey had Karl Cohen investigate the process, and he produced a body of mathematical theory making it possible to design a centrifugal separation unit, which Westinghouse undertook to construct.[136]
Scaling this up to a production plant presented a formidable technical challenge. Urey and Cohen estimated that producing a kilogram (2.2 lb) of uranium-235 per day would require up to 50,000 centrifuges with 1-meter (3 ft 3 in) rotors, or 10,000 centrifuges with 4-meter (13 ft) rotors, assuming that 4-meter rotors could be built. The prospect of keeping so many rotors operating continuously at high speed appeared daunting,[137] and when Beams ran his experimental apparatus, he obtained only 60% of the predicted yield, indicating that more centrifuges would be required. Beams, Urey and Cohen then began work on a series of improvements which promised to increase the efficiency of the process. However, frequent failures of motors, shafts and bearings at high speeds delayed work on the pilot plant.[138] In November 1942 the centrifuge process was abandoned by the Military Policy Committee following a recommendation by Conant, Nichols and August C. Klein of Stone & Webster.[139]
Although the centrifuge method was abandoned by the Manhattan Project, research into it advanced significantly after the war with the introduction of the Zippe-type centrifuge, which was developed in the Soviet Union by Soviet and captured German engineers.[140] It eventually became the preferred method of Uranium isotope separation, being far more economical than the other separation methods used during WWII.[141]
Electromagnetic separation
Main article: Y-12 Project
Electromagnetic isotope separation was developed by Lawrence at the University of California Radiation Laboratory. This method employed devices known as calutrons, a hybrid of the standard laboratory mass spectrometer and the cyclotron magnet. The name was derived from the words California, university and cyclotron.[142] In the electromagnetic process, a magnetic field deflected charged particles according to mass.[143] The process was neither scientifically elegant nor industrially efficient.[144] Compared with a gaseous diffusion plant or a nuclear reactor, an electromagnetic separation plant would consume more scarce materials, require more manpower to operate, and cost more to build. Nonetheless, the process was approved because it was based on proven technology and therefore represented less risk. Moreover, it could be built in stages, and rapidly reach industrial capacity.[142]
A large oval-shaped structure
Alpha I racetrack at Y-12
Marshall and Nichols discovered that the electromagnetic isotope separation process would require 5,000 short tons (4,500 tonnes) of copper, which was in desperately short supply. However, silver could be substituted, in an 11:10 ratio. On 3 August 1942, Nichols met with Under Secretary of the Treasury Daniel W. Bell and asked for the transfer of 6,000 tons of silver bullion from the West Point Bullion Depository. "Young man," Bell told him, "you may think of silver in tons but the Treasury will always think of silver in troy ounces!"[145] Eventually, 14,700 short tons (13,300 tonnes; 430,000,000 troy ounces) were used.[146]
The 1,000-troy-ounce (31 kg) silver bars were cast into cylindrical billets and taken to Phelps Dodge in Bayway, New Jersey, where they were extruded into strips 0.625 inches (15.9 mm) thick, 3 inches (76 mm) wide and 40 feet (12 m) long. These were wound onto magnetic coils by Allis-Chalmers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. After the war, all the machinery was dismantled and cleaned and the floorboards beneath the machinery were ripped up and burned to recover minute amounts of silver. In the end, only 1/3,600,000th was lost.[146][147] The last silver was returned in May 1970.[148]
Responsibility for the design and construction of the electromagnetic separation plant, which came to be called Y-12, was assigned to Stone & Webster by the S-1 Committee in June 1942. The design called for five first-stage processing units, known as Alpha racetracks, and two units for final processing, known as Beta racetracks. In September 1943 Groves authorized construction of four more racetracks, known as Alpha II. Construction began in February 1943.[149]
When the plant was started up for testing on schedule in October, the 14-ton vacuum tanks crept out of alignment because of the power of the magnets, and had to be fastened more securely. A more serious problem arose when the magnetic coils started shorting out. In December Groves ordered a magnet to be broken open, and handfuls of rust were found inside. Groves then ordered the racetracks to be torn down and the magnets sent back to the factory to be cleaned. A pickling plant was established on-site to clean the pipes and fittings.[144] The second Alpha I was not operational until the end of January 1944, the first Beta and first and third Alpha I's came online in March, and the fourth Alpha I was operational in April. The four Alpha II racetracks were completed between July and October 1944.[150]
A long corridor with many consoles with dials and switches, attended by women seated on high stools
Calutron Girls were young women who monitored calutron control panels at Y-12. Gladys Owens, seated in the foreground, was unaware of what she had been involved with until seeing this photo on a public tour of the facility 50 years later. Photo by Ed Westcott.[151]
Tennessee Eastman was contracted to manage Y-12 on the usual cost plus fixed-fee basis, with a fee of $22,500 per month plus $7,500 per racetrack for the first seven racetracks and $4,000 per additional racetrack.[152] The calutrons were initially operated by scientists from Berkeley to remove bugs and achieve a reasonable operating rate. They were then turned over to trained Tennessee Eastman operators who had only a high school education. Nichols compared unit production data, and pointed out to Lawrence that the young "hillbilly" girl operators were outperforming his PhDs. They agreed to a production race and Lawrence lost, a morale boost for the Tennessee Eastman workers and supervisors. The girls were "trained like soldiers not to reason why", while "the scientists could not refrain from time-consuming investigation of the cause of even minor fluctuations of the dials."[153]
Y-12 initially enriched the uranium-235 content to between 13% and 15%, and shipped the first few hundred grams of this to Los Alamos in March 1944. Only 1 part in 5,825 of the uranium feed emerged as final product. Much of the rest was splattered over equipment in the process. Strenuous recovery efforts helped raise production to 10% of the uranium-235 feed by January 1945. In February the Alpha racetracks began receiving slightly enriched (1.4%) feed from the new S-50 thermal diffusion plant. The next month it received enhanced (5%) feed from the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant. By August K-25 was producing uranium sufficiently enriched to feed directly into the Beta tracks.[154]
Gaseous diffusion
Main article: K-25
The most promising but also the most challenging method of isotope separation was gaseous diffusion. Graham's law states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular mass, so in a box containing a semi-permeable membrane and a mixture of two gases, the lighter molecules will pass out of the container more rapidly than the heavier molecules. The gas leaving the container is somewhat enriched in the lighter molecules, while the residual gas is somewhat depleted. The idea was that such boxes could be formed into a cascade of pumps and membranes, with each successive stage containing a slightly more enriched mixture. Research into the process was carried out at Columbia University by a group that included Harold Urey, Karl P. Cohen, and John R. Dunning.[155]
Oblique aerial view of an enormous U-shaped building
Oak Ridge K-25 plant
In November 1942 the Military Policy Committee approved the construction of a 600-stage gaseous diffusion plant.[156] On 14 December, M. W. Kellogg accepted an offer to construct the plant, which was codenamed K-25. A cost plus fixed-fee contract was negotiated, eventually totaling $2.5 million. A separate corporate entity called Kellex was created for the project, headed by Percival C. Keith, one of Kellogg's vice presidents.[157] The process faced formidable technical difficulties. The highly corrosive gas uranium hexafluoride would have to be used, as no substitute could be found, and the motors and pumps would have to be vacuum tight and enclosed in inert gas. The biggest problem was the design of the barrier, which would have to be strong, porous and resistant to corrosion by uranium hexafluoride. The best choice for this seemed to be nickel. Edward Adler and Edward Norris created a mesh barrier from electroplated nickel. A six-stage pilot plant was built at Columbia to test the process, but the Norris-Adler prototype proved to be too brittle. A rival barrier was developed from powdered nickel by Kellex, the Bell Telephone Laboratories and the Bakelite Corporation. In January 1944, Groves ordered the Kellex barrier into production.[158][159]
Kellex's design for K-25 called for a four-story 0.5-mile (0.80 km) long U-shaped structure containing 54 contiguous buildings. These were divided into nine sections. Within these were cells of six stages. The cells could be operated independently, or consecutively within a section. Similarly, the sections could be operated separately or as part of a single cascade. A survey party began construction by marking out the 500-acre (2.0 km2) site in May 1943. Work on the main building began in October 1943, and the six-stage pilot plant was ready for operation on 17 April 1944. In 1945 Groves canceled the upper stages of the plant, directing Kellex to instead design and build a 540-stage side feed unit, which became known as K-27. Kellex transferred the last unit to the operating contractor, Union Carbide and Carbon, on 11 September 1945. The total cost, including the K-27 plant completed after the war, came to $480 million.[160]
The production plant commenced operation in February 1945, and as cascade after cascade came online, the quality of the product increased. By April 1945, K-25 had attained a 1.1% enrichment and the output of the S-50 thermal diffusion plant began being used as feed. Some product produced the next month reached nearly 7% enrichment. In August, the last of the 2,892 stages commenced operation. K-25 and K-27 achieved their full potential in the early postwar period, when they eclipsed the other production plants and became the prototypes for a new generation of plants.[161]
Thermal diffusion
Main article: S-50 Project
The thermal diffusion process was based on Sydney Chapman and David Enskog's theory, which explained that when a mixed gas passes through a temperature gradient, the heavier one tends to concentrate at the cold end and the lighter one at the warm end. Since hot gases tend to rise and cool ones tend to fall, this can be used as a means of isotope separation. This process was first demonstrated by Klaus Clusius and Gerhard Dickel in Germany in 1938.[162] It was developed by US Navy scientists, but was not one of the enrichment technologies initially selected for use in the Manhattan Project. This was primarily due to doubts about its technical feasibility, but the inter-service rivalry between the Army and Navy also played a part.[163]
A factory with three smoking chimneys on a river bend, viewed from above
The S-50 plant is the dark building to the upper left behind the Oak Ridge powerhouse (with smoke stacks).
The Naval Research Laboratory continued the research under Philip Abelson's direction, but there was little contact with the Manhattan Project until April 1944, when Captain William S. Parsons, the naval officer in charge of ordnance development at Los Alamos, brought Oppenheimer news of encouraging progress in the Navy's experiments on thermal diffusion. Oppenheimer wrote to Groves suggesting that the output of a thermal diffusion plant could be fed into Y-12. Groves set up a committee consisting of Warren K. Lewis, Eger Murphree and Richard Tolman to investigate the idea, and they estimated that a thermal diffusion plant costing $3.5 million could enrich 50 kilograms (110 lb) of uranium per week to nearly 0.9% uranium-235. Groves approved its construction on 24 June 1944.[164]
Groves contracted with the H. K. Ferguson Company of Cleveland, Ohio, to build the thermal diffusion plant, which was designated S-50. Groves's advisers, Karl Cohen and W. I. Thompson from Standard Oil,[165] estimated that it would take six months to build. Groves gave Ferguson just four. Plans called for the installation of 2,142 48-foot-tall (15 m) diffusion columns arranged in 21 racks. Inside each column were three concentric tubes. Steam, obtained from the nearby K-25 powerhouse at a pressure of 100 pounds per square inch (690 kPa) and temperature of 545 °F (285 °C), flowed downward through the innermost 1.25-inch (32 mm) nickel pipe, while water at 155 °F (68 °C) flowed upward through the outermost iron pipe. The uranium hexafluoride flowed in the middle copper pipe, and isotope separation of the uranium occurred between the nickel and copper pipes.[166]
Work commenced on 9 July 1944, and S-50 began partial operation in September. Ferguson operated the plant through a subsidiary known as Fercleve. The plant produced just 10.5 pounds (4.8 kg) of 0.852% uranium-235 in October. Leaks limited production and forced shutdowns over the next few months, but in June 1945 it produced 12,730 pounds (5,770 kg).[167] By March 1945, all 21 production racks were operating. Initially the output of S-50 was fed into Y-12, but starting in March 1945 all three enrichment processes were run in series. S-50 became the first stage, enriching from 0.71% to 0.89%. This material was fed into the gaseous diffusion process in the K-25 plant, which produced a product enriched to about 23%. This was, in turn, fed into Y-12,[168] which boosted it to about 89%, sufficient for nuclear weapons.[169]
Aggregate U-235 production
About 50 kilograms (110 lb) of uranium enriched to 89% uranium-235 was delivered to Los Alamos by July 1945.[169] The entire 50 kg, along with some 50%-enriched, averaging out to about 85% enriched, were used in Little Boy.[169]
Plutonium
The second line of development pursued by the Manhattan Project used the fissile element plutonium. Although small amounts of plutonium exist in nature, the best way to obtain large quantities of the element is in a nuclear reactor, in which natural uranium is bombarded by neutrons. The uranium-238 is transmuted into uranium-239, which rapidly decays, first into neptunium-239 and then into plutonium-239.[170] Only a small amount of the uranium-238 will be transformed, so the plutonium must be chemically separated from the remaining uranium, from any initial impurities, and from fission products.[170]
X-10 Graphite Reactor
Main article: X-10 Graphite Reactor
Two workmen on a movable platform similar to that used by window washers, stick a rod into one of many small holes in the wall in front of them.
Workers load uranium slugs into the X-10 Graphite Reactor.
In March 1943, DuPont began construction of a plutonium plant on a 112-acre (0.5 km2) site at Oak Ridge. Intended as a pilot plant for the larger production facilities at Hanford, it included the air-cooled X-10 Graphite Reactor, a chemical separation plant, and support facilities. Because of the subsequent decision to construct water-cooled reactors at Hanford, only the chemical separation plant operated as a true pilot.[171] The X-10 Graphite Reactor consisted of a huge block of graphite, 24 feet (7.3 m) long on each side, weighing around 1,500 short tons (1,400 t), surrounded by 7 feet (2.1 m) of high-density concrete as a radiation shield.[171]
The greatest difficulty was encountered with the uranium slugs produced by Mallinckrodt and Metal Hydrides. These somehow had to be coated in aluminum to avoid corrosion and the escape of fission products into the cooling system. The Grasselli Chemical Company attempted to develop a hot dipping process without success. Meanwhile, Alcoa tried canning. A new process for flux-less welding was developed, and 97% of the cans passed a standard vacuum test, but high temperature tests indicated a failure rate of more than 50%. Nonetheless, production began in June 1943. The Metallurgical Laboratory eventually developed an improved welding technique with the help of General Electric, which was incorporated into the production process in October 1943.[172]
Watched by Fermi and Compton, the X-10 Graphite Reactor went critical on 4 November 1943 with about 30 short tons (27 t) of uranium. A week later the load was increased to 36 short tons (33 t), raising its power generation to 500 kW, and by the end of the month the first 500 mg of plutonium was created.[173] Modifications over time raised the power to 4,000 kW in July 1944. X-10 operated as a production plant until January 1945, when it was turned over to research activities.[174]
Hanford reactors
Main article: Hanford Site
Although an air-cooled design was chosen for the reactor at Oak Ridge to facilitate rapid construction, it was recognized that this would be impractical for the much larger production reactors. Initial designs by the Metallurgical Laboratory and DuPont used helium for cooling, before they determined that a water-cooled reactor would be simpler, cheaper and quicker to build.[175] The design did not become available until 4 October 1943; in the meantime, Matthias concentrated on improving the Hanford Site by erecting accommodations, improving the roads, building a railway switch line, and upgrading the electricity, water and telephone lines.[176]
An aerial view of the Hanford B-Reactor site from June 1944. At center is the reactor building. Small trucks dot the landscape and give a sense of scale. Two large water towers loom above the plant.
Aerial view of Hanford B-Reactor site, June 1944
As at Oak Ridge, the most difficulty was encountered while canning the uranium slugs, which commenced at Hanford in March 1944. They were pickled to remove dirt and impurities, dipped in molten bronze, tin, and aluminum-silicon alloy, canned using hydraulic presses, and then capped using arc welding under an argon atmosphere. Finally, they were subjected to a series of tests to detect holes or faulty welds. Disappointingly, most canned slugs initially failed the tests, resulting in an output of only a handful of canned slugs per day. But steady progress was made and by June 1944 production increased to the point where it appeared that enough canned slugs would be available to start Reactor B on schedule in August 1944.[177]
Work began on Reactor B, the first of six planned 250 MW reactors, on 10 October 1943.[178] The reactor complexes were given letter designations A through F, with B, D and F sites chosen to be developed first, as this maximised the distance between the reactors. They would be the only ones constructed during the Manhattan Project.[179] Some 390 short tons (350 t) of steel, 17,400 cubic yards (13,300 m3) of concrete, 50,000 concrete blocks and 71,000 concrete bricks were used to construct the 120-foot (37 m) high building.
Construction of the reactor itself commenced in February 1944.[180] Watched by Compton, Matthias, DuPont's Crawford Greenewalt, Leona Woods and Fermi, who inserted the first slug, the reactor was powered up beginning on 13 September 1944. Over the next few days, 838 tubes were loaded and the reactor went critical. Shortly after midnight on 27 September, the operators began to withdraw the control rods to initiate production. At first all appeared well but around 03:00 the power level started to drop and by 06:30 the reactor had shut down completely. The cooling water was investigated to see if there was a leak or contamination. The next day the reactor started up again, only to shut down once more.[181][182]
Fermi contacted Chien-Shiung Wu, who identified the cause of the problem as neutron poisoning from xenon-135, which has a half-life of 9.2 hours.[183] Fermi, Woods, Donald J. Hughes and John Archibald Wheeler then calculated the nuclear cross section of xenon-135, which turned out to be 30,000 times that of uranium.[184] DuPont engineer George Graves had deviated from the Metallurgical Laboratory's original design in which the reactor had 1,500 tubes arranged in a circle, and had added an additional 504 tubes to fill in the corners. The scientists had originally considered this overengineering a waste of time and money, but Fermi realized that by loading all 2,004 tubes, the reactor could reach the required power level and efficiently produce plutonium.[185] Reactor D was started on 17 December 1944 and Reactor F on 25 February 1945.[186]
Separation process
A contour map showing the fork of the Columbia and Yakima rivers and the boundary of the land, with seven small red squares marked on it
Map of the Hanford Site. Railroads flank the plants to the north and south. Reactors are the three northernmost red squares, along the Columbia River. The separation plants are the lower two red squares from the grouping south of the reactors. The bottom red square is the 300 area.
Meanwhile, the chemists considered the problem of how plutonium could be separated from uranium when its chemical properties were not known. Working with the minute quantities of plutonium available at the Metallurgical Laboratory in 1942, a team under Charles M. Cooper developed a lanthanum fluoride process for separating uranium and plutonium, which was chosen for the pilot separation plant. A second separation process, the bismuth phosphate process, was subsequently developed by Seaborg and Stanly G. Thomson.[187] This process worked by toggling plutonium between its +4 and +6 oxidation states in solutions of bismuth phosphate. In the former state, the plutonium was precipitated; in the latter, it stayed in solution and the other products were precipitated.[188]
Greenewalt favored the bismuth phosphate process due to the corrosive nature of lanthanum fluoride, and it was selected for the Hanford separation plants.[189] Once X-10 began producing plutonium, the pilot separation plant was put to the test. The first batch was processed at 40% efficiency but over the next few months this was raised to 90%.[174]
At Hanford, top priority was initially given to the installations in the 300 area. This contained buildings for testing materials, preparing uranium, and assembling and calibrating instrumentation. One of the buildings housed the canning equipment for the uranium slugs, while another contained a small test reactor. Notwithstanding the high priority allocated to it, work on the 300 area fell behind schedule due to the unique and complex nature of the 300 area facilities, and wartime shortages of labor and materials.[190]
Early plans called for the construction of two separation plants in each of the areas known as 200-West and 200-East. This was subsequently reduced to two, the T and U plants, in 200-West and one, the B plant, at 200-East.[191] Each separation plant consisted of four buildings: a process cell building or "canyon" (known as 221), a concentration building (224), a purification building (231) and a magazine store (213). The canyons were each 800 feet (240 m) long and 65 feet (20 m) wide. Each consisted of forty 17.7-by-13-by-20-foot (5.4 by 4.0 by 6.1 m) cells.[192]
submitted by freedomforg to OneWordBan [link] [comments]


2020.03.01 14:01 CuteBananaMuffin New Evidence on Artificiality at Cydonia on Mars [MEGA POST]]

New Evidence on Artificiality at Cydonia on Mars [MEGA POST]]
by Tom Van Flandern from MetaResearch Website

ABSTRACT
The so-called "Face" on Mars and the surrounding anomalous objects in a region called "Cydonia" appear at first glance to be randomly located and oriented on the planet.
But it has previously been established that the martian poles had a different location with respect to the surface of the planet in the past, and apparently jumped from that location to the present one in relatively little geological time. We draw attention to the fact that the Cydonia area is right on the old martian equator, and the "Face" is oriented perpendicular to that old equator, to within the measurement uncertainties.
This has only about a 1% probability of occurring by chance.
Both the line of inquiry that led to this discovery and a possible purpose for building such an artificial structure looking into space were suggested by the exploded planet hypothesis. Taken in conjunction with the finding of bilateral symmetry in the Face and the anomalous nature of other nearby objects on Mars, the weight of existing evidence has, in this author's opinion, shifted in favor of an artificial origin of the Cydonia complex.
With luck, the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft now en route to Mars will confirm or refute this conclusion.

Figure 1. Overview of Cydonia region on Mars. North is up.The frame height is about 1.5 degrees or 80 km.
Description of Cydonia
The Cydonia region of Mars (see Figure 1) is located at 41° north latitude, 10° west longitude on the red planet.
It was photographed several times by NASA's Viking Mars-orbiting spacecraft in the mid-to-late 1970s. One ground object drew the attention of researchers because of its striking resemblance to a human face. In the opinion of many who have viewed the higher resolution images, the resemblance is closer than seems likely to have arisen by chance, despite half the "face" being hidden in shadow. (See Figure 2.)
Because it is a three-dimensional "face" and not just a profile, it has been described as the next best depiction of a human face in stone on its (~ 1 kilometer) size scale in the explored solar system after Mount Rushmore in South Dakota.
The immediately surrounding area likewise contains a number of anomalous-looking objects. One of them, dubbed the "D&M pyramid" after its discoverers Vincent DiPietro and Gregory Molenaar, is shown in Figure 3.
It has a more-than-passing resemblance to a four-sided, or possibly a five-sided, pyramid. The formation of a small crater seen very close to the base on the shadowed side has apparently thrown debris onto that side of the object, and possibly caused it to split or separate, leading to the ambiguity in the number of original apparent pyramidal faces.
But the three faces not coated with debris appear remarkably smooth and triangular, separated by seemingly linear edges.

Figure 2. Close-up of the \"Face\" at Cydonia on Mars.

Figure 3. Close-up of \"D&M pyramid\" at Cydonia on Mars.

Figure 4. Close-up of \"Fortress\" at Cydonia on Mars.

Figure 5. Close-up of \"City\" showing its relation to the \"Face\" and \"Fortress\"

Still another nearby object has been dubbed the "Fortress" because of a modest resemblance to structures called that on Earth. (See Figure 4.)
Its linear features and sharp angles suggest artificiality to some. A nearby cluster of vaguely pyramidal objects surrounding some unusual small mounds not commonly seen away from Cydonia has been dubbed the "City". (See Figure 5.)
Two or perhaps three other nearby features are each in its own way mildly anomalous or unique on the planet. These may be viewed in (Carlotto, 1991), in (DiPietro, Molenaar & Brandenburg, 1988), or on http//www.psrw.com/~markc/marshome.html.

Summary of the Exploded Planet Hypothesis (eph)
In (Van Flandern, 1993), the author provided extensive evidence of the explosion of a former major planet in the main asteroid belt. Such evidence may be found all over the solar system. A few highlight points include the following:
Asteroid orbits fill the available range of positions and velocities between Mars and Jupiter that are stable against planetary perturbations over millions of years. Their original population was clearly far greater, with only a small percentage of the original mass still present. Some asteroid orbits, most notably the Trojan asteroids near Jupiter's orbit, are not stable for time spans as long as a billion years, and cannot be original members of the solar system (Marzari, Farinella, et al., 1997).
Asteroid orbits possess "explosion signatures" – patterns first catalogued for orbits of fragments of artificial Earth satellites that blew up in orbit around the Earth, that are indicative of a common origin at one point in space at one instant of time (Gabbard, 1974).
Many meteorites show evidence of separation of heavy elements from light elements by gravity (called "chemical differentiation"), as would normally require a planetary-sized parent body.
All meteorites have relatively young cosmic ray exposure ages, indicating they have not been traveling in space in their present form since the solar system's origin billions of years ago. They must be fragments of much larger bodies. But collisional fragmentation is rare enough that most meteorites should show much older exposure ages than they do. So some other large-scale fragmentation process seems required.
The predicted statistical properties of the orbits of fragments ejected to a great distance from an explosion in the main asteroid belt are well fulfilled by "new" comets. Some of these properties were unknown before being predicted by the explosion model and confirmed in the actual orbits of new comets (Van Flandern, 1978).
Comet comas seem to have all the properties of the predicted debris clouds that should accompany fragments from an explosion. One of these is visibility of the coma all around the orbit. The standard model tries to explain comas by outgassing from a single nucleus as the comet approaches the Sun. But Comet Hale-Bopp, for example, had a fully developed coma when first photographed out near the orbit of Uranus.
Comets and asteroids, to the surprise of mainstream astronomy, appear to be indistinguishable as classes with respect to physical and chemical properties such as reflectivity and spectra.
No unique identifying characteristic seems to exist, as if both had a common origin. Yet in standard models, asteroids originated in the inner solar system and comets in the outer regions, and the two should be quite chemically and spectrally distinct.
The explosion model expected debris clouds around asteroids and comets. This led to a well-publicized 1991 prediction that satellites will be found around both types of bodies.
Mainstream astronomers were shocked when the Galileo spacecraft found a moon orbiting asteroid Ida in 1993.

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Figure 6. Saturn's half-bright, half-dark moon Iapetus.

The explosion would have sent a blast wave of black, carbonaceous material through the entire planetary system.
In fact, airless bodies are coated by just such black residue precisely to the extent they could have been exposed to such a blast wave. The most striking example is Saturn's moon Iapetus, which spins so slowly (once per 80 days) that only one side could have been coated by the blast.
An unsolved mystery of long standing about Iapetus is why it is icy-bright on one side and coal black on the other. (See Figure 6.)
Over 100 lines of evidence bearing on the comparison of the exploded planet hypothesis and the many standard models it would replace are discussed in (Van Flandern, 1993).
The two strongest lines of evidence are:
(1) the occurrence among comet orbits of every statistical property of orbits expected to result from an explosion origin, including some not previously known; and
(2) the a priori prediction of the main physical characteristics of comets by the explosion-debris-cloud ("satellite") model.
An example of the former is the expectation of a population of "new" comets close to solar system escape velocity falling back into the planetary region for the first time since the explosion.
An example of the latter is a quantitative prediction of the mean relative speeds of split comet fragments as a function of heliocentric distance - a feat that is by itself a virtual proof of the explosion-debris-cloud model for comets.
The recent discovery of a second belt of fragments orbiting the Sun in large numbers beyond the orbit of Neptune suggests that planetary explosions into asteroid belts are not rare events on time scales of billions of years. The mean orbital period of new comets tells us that the most recent "planetary" explosion event happened 3.2 million years ago, and the angular momentum of new comets locates that explosion somewhere within or near the main asteroid belt.
The number of new comets, integrated over 3.2 million years, indicates a total mass of the parent body somewhere between that of the largest asteroid Ceres and that of our Moon.
Consistent with that finding, the most common type of meteorites found on Earth, the chondrites, are from a parent body too small for chemical differentiation to have occurred, as is generally true for moon-sized bodies.

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I call this most recent exploded object "Body C" to indicate its association with comets and chondrite meteorites.
Although this astronomically recent event, which coincides with the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary in the geological record on Earth, was apparently the source of all comets still existing today, comets from such an explosion cannot survive beyond about 10,000,000 years after the event because of galactic tides. Chemically differentiated meteors and the larger asteroids presumably originated from earlier explosions of larger planet-sized bodies.
Piecing together a tentative scenario from meteorite compositions and exposure ages, and from geological evidence of mass-extinction events of global extent, the chronology in Table 1 seems indicated (Van Flandern, 1995).
This chronology is based on clusterings in meteorite cosmic ray exposure ages (Caffee, Goswami, et al., 1988) and the dating of tektite strewn fields on Earth (O’Keefe, 1975), plus the major geological events shown in Table 2.

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Since that speculative suggestion, many additional lines of evidence have served mainly to amplify its probability of being correct. (See summary in Table 3.)
If Mars was a moon of Planet V at the time of the latter's explosion, Mars would have been severely affected by its proximity to the blast. Because of its mass, Mars must have been in a synchronous lock, keeping the same face toward Planet V just as our Moon keeps the same face toward the Earth.
So this scenario first predicts that one hemisphere of Mars would have been heavily bombarded, and the other barely touched by the explosion. That is indeed a good description of the actual situation for Mars, for which an overview is shown in Figure 7. Except for two extensive lava extrusions, the border between highlands and lowlands is remarkably linear, and almost coincides with a great circle inclined about 35° to the present equator.
This sharp hemispheric border is certainly a puzzlement for the often-proposed explanation that the old Martian northern hemisphere was blown away by some huge mega-impact.

Figure 7.Martian cratered highlands (white) and lowland plains (shaded). Left: western hemisphere, 180° to 0°.Right: eastern hemisphere, 360° to 180°.From (Christiansen and Hamblin, 1995).

Moreover, evidence of water erosion on achondrite meteorites, presumed here to have originated from Planet V, indicates that the exploded planet contained abundant water as well, much of which would have hit Mars.
Surely, such a dramatic event would have left plentiful evidence on the red planet. Let us compare to what is actually seen today.
In (Maran, 1992), we learn that the northern hemisphere of Mars is only sparsely cratered, compared to the heavily cratered southern hemisphere. (McGill & Squyres, 1991) discuss the huge crustal dichotomy between the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars. The southern crust is so much thicker than the northern that the center of mass of Mars is offset from its center of figure by 3.6 km.
Moreover, the thick southern crust drops abruptly to the level of the northern lowlands, with the surface sloping down 4 or 5 kilometers in a span of just a few hundred kilometers near the present equator. But there are no mountain rings nor catastrophic impacts to mark the boundary between highlands and lowlands, so the cause of what is presumed to have been the destruction of the ancient northern crust is generally considered unknown (Abell, Morrison & Wolff, 1991).
There are two very large, relatively well preserved impact basins on the bombarded southern plains:
the 2000-km diameter Hellas Basin at 43°S, 291°W the 1200-km diameter Argyre basin at 50°S, 42°W
Numerous other large craters stand almost shoulder to shoulder in the south.
And unlike lunar craters, southern Martian craters have ejecta saturated with water, giving them a mud-like consistency that caused them to flow along the ground after ejection from the crater.
Branching valleys with tributaries cover all the exposed high terrain except at high latitudes, where they may have been eroded away. Lava flows between large craters on the highlands show that volcanism was occurring simultaneously with the formation of the cratered terrain.
A noteworthy peculiarity is that many large channels start close to the volcanoes in Elysium and extend several hundred kilometers to the northwest, down the regional slope. And several enormous channels emerge from the chaotic terrain east of the Tharsis bulge canyons and extend northward. Finally, the Tharsis bulge itself takes the form of high-elevation terrain and several huge volcanoes in the Tharsis region at tropical latitudes on Mars.
This picture is indeed very much as the exploded planet hypothesis (eph) with Mars as a nearby moon would expect. The actual data for Mars are so close to expectations that one even sees evidence that many of the impacts on the southern hemisphere near the equator were northward-directed grazing impacts. (Strom, Croft & Barlow, 1992) indicate that the cratering on Mars is more diverse than on any other planet or satellite in the solar system.
(Chapman & Jones, 1977) tell us that:
the southern highland craters generally have low rims and shallow depths (as if considerable in-filling occurred) the craters smaller than 30 km are too few in number (as if erased by near-simultaneous larger impact events) the "erosion" episode apparently consisted of a "pulse" contemporary with the valley network formation
We might well ask where this "pulse" came from if not a nearby planet that exploded.
If the parent planet were a few Earth masses in size, and Mars subtended a few square degrees in its sky, then Mars would intercept about 10-4 of the parent planet’s mass. Spread over one hemisphere on Mars, this would imply a crustal build-up of about 20 km. This agrees well with the actual crustal thickness of the southern hemisphere, estimated to be 21 km (McGill & Dimitriou, 1990).
The new material would have lower average mean density than the mantle of Mars because it would be more loosely packed. This build-up would shift the center of figure of Mars south about 10 km (half the maximum build-up). But the center of mass would shift south by a lesser amount because the material was less dense. The observed 3.6-km difference (Anderson, Jurgens, et al., 1996) is a reasonable value in this scenario.
The only significant departure from intuitive expectations is that the affected hemisphere is the southern one. In the normal course of events, one would expect Mars to be struck on an east or west hemisphere - the side permanently facing Planet V. Assuming that happens, then after the explosion Mars would be rotating around an axis that had more mass on one side than on the other because of the one-sided bombardment.
This is an unstable configuration. With Planet V gone, Mars would be forced to gradually re-orient its entire body until it spun again about an axis with equal mass balanced on all sides. This would involve an approximately 90° pole shift until the spin axis passed through the middle of the extra-heavy southern hemisphere. The actual pole position before the Planet V explosion is only poorly known.
But from data in (Schultz & Lutz, 1988, see p. 124), the oldest known pole position – near Utopia Planitia (UP) – is roughly 90° away from the position near Arcadia Planitia (AP) last occupied by the pole before it jumped to its present location.
(Speculative intermediate pole positions between UP and AP may be associated with re-orientation delays caused by the co-orbiting of Mars and Body C.)
Not only is the prediction by the eph of a geologically rapid pole shift in agreement with the data, but the approximately 90° magnitude of that shift agrees as well. And the early pole shift(s) are known to be geologically associated with the time the volcanic eruptions began on Mars. This too fits the Planet V scenario because when the north pole was still at location UP, the south pole 180° away was near the Tharsis volcanoes.
Therefore, the UP-Tharsis axis of Mars was the shortest axis. Following the 90° pole shift to AP, the Tharsis volcano region was relocated to near the Martian equator. Centrifugal force would try to flatten the new polar axis and cause the new equator to bulge out. The region under the most stress would have been the Tharsis region because it would have to make the greatest adjustment - from shortest axis to the new equatorial radius.
So this is where the extrusions from the martian interior would erupt as the interior of Mars adjusted to the huge new weight of its bombarded southern hemisphere. The present Tharsis bulge, on which may be found the four largest shield volcanoes in the solar system near its central region, was very likely created at just this time.
Yet another consequence of proximity to a planetary explosion would be to blow away a substantial part of the original atmosphere of Mars.
Again, there is evidence that Mars could have supported, and probably actually possessed, a thicker atmosphere in the past (Lammer, 1996). This old atmosphere might have had a surface pressure up to 10 bars, a factor of 1000 greater than for the present martian atmosphere, and ten times thicker than Earth's atmosphere.
Moreover, contamination of the Mars atmosphere by gases from exploded Planet V may then readily explain the general similarities between the contents of gas bubbles in meteorite EETA79001 (presumed here to be a piece of Planet V) and Viking spacecraft samples of the present Mars atmosphere.
Despite the often quoted statement that the match was "almost exact", it is in fact not especially good. However, no presently existing planet matched as well as Mars, perhaps explaining why the quality of the match seems to have been exaggerated (Van Flandern, 1996).
As further evidence of this scenario, we note that Mars has an anomalous 129Xe content in its atmosphere that is nearly triple that found on other bodies where it has been measured (DiPietro, 1996). Since 129Xe is a second order nuclear fission by-product and does not arise through normal nucleosynthesis, it has long been assumed that an ancient supernova was responsible for the presence of that isotope in the solar system. Then why does Mars have an anomalously high amount of it? Again, its proximity to the eph event is an obvious explanation for Mars in particular to be anomalous.
A missing step in the chronology is an identification of Body C. From meteorite evidence, it must have been an undifferentiated body, and therefore probably a small planetary moon rather than a planet or an asteroid. This agrees with mass estimates based on counting comets (Van Flandern, 1995).
Yet comets also indicate that it had a high water content, perhaps even oceans, rather like those presently conjectured to exist under the ice on Jupiter's moon Europa. A factor in destabilizing the body for later explosion may have been proximity to Planet V when the latter exploded, since Body C would then have received an asymmetric bombardment similar to Mars.
If it was another moon of Planet V along with Mars, it is interesting to contemplate the logical sequence of events following Planet V's explosion. Mars and C are released from their satellite orbits into a solar orbit. With typical satellite velocities, an eccentricity of order 10% seems likely to result for the solar orbit; and Mars does have just such an eccentricity, presently 9%.
Once Planet V has dissipated, Mars and C may well find themselves within their mutual gravitational sphere of influence. Much like Pluto and Charon following their probable escape from Neptune, Mars and C might therefore remain gravitationally bound to one another. The two would remain a stable binary system, evolving their rotation rates and orbits under the influence of tidal friction, until the explosion of Body C 3.2 Mya.
That smaller explosion would pepper half of Mars with smaller, fresher craters and an enormous amount of water. A new round of volcanism would be set off as the weight of the newly bombarded hemisphere increased.
This could account for the evidence of flowing water on mainly the south hemisphere, with some overlap to the north, at around the same time as the cratering and volcanism. Following the explosion of Body C, Mars would then undergo the its final pole re-orientation to its present spin axis as the red planet began to orbit the Sun alone.
Finally, the high deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) ratio of the martian atmosphere implies that almost all its formerly abundant flowing water has been lost in just the last 105 to 107 years. That, in turn, is consistent with the chronology of the eph, for which this main water dump happened at 3.2 Mya.
According to this scenario, the water dumped on Mars then was far greater in volume, and evaporated in far shorter a time, than has seemed possible with all previous scenarios considered up to now.
Connection of the EPH and Pole Shift to Cydonia
Either the unusual landforms at Cydonia on Mars are natural features, or they are artificial constructs of intelligent beings.
A number of tests of artificiality have been proposed since the area was discovered. For example, it has been noted that the "Face" is a three-dimensional face, not merely a profile or an outline. As such, it still looks like a face from every angle.
Moreover, the U.S. military has perfected the use of fractal techniques to search for man-made objects camouflaged by terrain in aerial photographs. It has been well demonstrated that natural objects show a high degree of fractal content, whereas artificial objects have more symmetry and regularity.
This software was applied to various features on Mars, with the finding that the "Face" gave by far the highest degree of artificiality of any image tested, usually high enough to assure artificiality of the object if it had appeared on Earth.
In the immediate vicinity of the Cydonian landforms, but in general not elsewhere on the martian surface, can be found more than a dozen small, raised mounds of similar she distribution of the mounds (Crater & McDaniel, 1997; see also http//www.mcdanielreport.com/) shows that the random geology hypothesis fails to account for the regularity and redundancy of geometric patterns in these formations. At the least, enigmatic geology is involved, the alternative being intelligent design.
Each of these features, taken in conjunction with the presence of several other anomalous objects in close proximity, have induced a number of serious scientists to seek to develop further tests of artificiality, in consideration of the importance of such a finding.
I have proposed four such tests myself, although it now appears that others have made some of the same proposals before me.
These were:
Bilateral symmetry of the Face: If natural, the chances are negligible that the shadowed side of the object would resemble a symmetric half of a human face, and ought to be a random pile of rocks or sand. If artificial, the mirror image of the visible half face is to be expected.
Culturally significant location: A culturally meaningful location of the structures, such as on the equator or in the lowest valley on the planet, would suggest artificial design; whereas a seemingly random location would suggest a natural formation.
Orientation: A human face has a natural "up" and "down". A polar-aligned north-south orientation of a face structure suggests artificiality, while any other orientation suggests a natural formation.
Functionality: The faces on Mount Rushmore in South Dakota are visible to people on the ground. The "Face" on Mars stares up into space, yet cannot be seen from any other planet, even with our largest telescopes. A lack of obvious purpose suggests a natural object, although we cannot hope to guess all possible purposes of its hypothetical builders. An obvious purposefulness would suggest artificiality.

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S.V. McDaniel notes the symmetrical headpiece, the second eye-socket, and the continuation of the mouth and "teeth" to the other side of the face as the most significant points of symmetry.

Figure 8 The \"Face\" at a higher Sun angle, image processed to bring out detail on the shadowed side.
Now a development has shed further light on this important artificiality question.
Following a discussion of the exploded planet hypothesis by the author on the nationally syndicated Art Bell radio talk show on December 20, 1996, an listener who wishes to remain anonymous sent email via the Meta Research web site. Assuming the landforms at Cydonia on Mars had been built by advanced beings, the listener suggested that perhaps the exploded planet might have been the cause of the demise of their civilization.
If that were the case, then the structures at Cydonia would have necessarily been built before the most recent explosion event. Having heard me mention the martian pole shift as probably caused by the explosion, the listener asked where the "Face" on Mars was relative to the prior location of the martian pole.
This seemed an interesting and logical question. According to (Schultz, 1985), the most recent stable position of the martian north pole before its present one (designated AP in our earlier discussion) was at 45°N, 160°W. On that assumption, I computed the great circle arc between that former pole position and the coordinates of the "Face" at Cydonia, 40.89°N, 9.52°W.
If s is that arc length, the formula is:
cos s = sin 45 sin 40.89 + cos 45 cos 40.89 cos(160 - 9.52)
from which we compute s = 90.1°.
The old pole position was specified to the nearest 5°, and conversations with the author of that study suggest it is probably good to the nearest 10°. This implies an estimated mean error of +/- 5 great circle degrees. This would likewise be the mean error for s.
So a result that is just 0.1° from the old equator is necessarily somewhat fortuitous. Nonetheless, it is clear that Cydonia formerly occupied a location quite close the previous martian equator. And this passes the "location" test of artificiality in our Table 4 since the equator is culturally significant and there is no known reason why a natural landform would prefer the equator to any other surface location.
Given that there are 41253 square degrees on any sphere, the statistical probability of a random point lying within 5° of the equator of the sphere is 9%. Therefore, the probability that this result for Cydonia is culturally significant rather than chance is about 91%.
With the location test nominally passed, the orientation test took on extra importance. The present orientation of the "Face" is 31° west of north.
If a is the orientation correction between present pole and former pole viewed from Cydonia, the formula for it is:
sin a = -cos 45 sin (160 - 9.52) / sin s
...from which we compute a = -20.4°.
This brings the "Face" three times closer to the culturally significant north-south orientation than it now is. An overview of the situation may be seen in Figure 1, where the straight gray line parallels the old martian equator.
However, we have landforms other than the "Face" to aid in this orientation test. The primary linear features in other nearby landforms also show a preference for nearly the same orientation as the "Face". We see these in Figure 9 courtesy of Mark J. Carlotto, who also provided the following descriptions:
The "rounded formation", the pyramid in the City, the Fortress, and the Face, though different in shape, are similar in both size and orientation.


https://preview.redd.it/f6luqz6872k41.png?width=1855&format=png&auto=webp&s=40472bcf1170a060b656bc3c8de33ea769e1a85d

https://preview.redd.it/laeayoic72k41.png?width=1868&format=png&auto=webp&s=bd56c1866e1b5ce6c00e70a3ffa72f5c6ebcb035
It is intriguing to note that this hypothesized civilization apparently had the ability to save some of its members from the deadly effects of one or both explosions by space transporting them to the far side of nearby moons. But following the destruction of their primary world, Body C, at 3.2 Mya, this species would have been forced to choose between attempting to survive on explosion-torn, atmosphere-stripped Mars, or long-distance relocation to the most habitable of the remaining planets, Earth.
This is intriguing because the first appearance of hominids on Earth also dates to just about the time of this last explosion, 3.2 Mya.
And it has been noted that the "Face" is apparently more hominid-like than alien.
Conclusions
The "Face" on Mars has now passed each test of artificiality yet proposed.
These tests include a three dimensional structure, a lack of fractal patterns in the image, non-random distribution of the nearby small mounds, proximity of other anomalous landforms, an apparent bilateral symmetry, being located on the martian equator, having a culturally significant orientation, and serving an apparent culturally significant purpose.
It would be an exaggeration to say that the case for artificiality is now compelling, and many thoughtful people will still find that conclusion less likely than all these "coincidences" put together. Yet the balance of the evidence, considered objectively, now weighs clearly in favor of artificiality over a natural origin of the Cydonian landforms.
As a counterpoint, it is sometimes argued that the probability of artificial structures on Mars must be vanishingly small. However, for all we know, intelligent life may have developed elsewhere in our galaxy long ago, and long since explored the galaxy and left structures on all terrestrial planets in the galaxy. If that were the case, then the probability of finding artificial landforms on Mars is close to 100%.
This illustrates that the probability of the Cydonia landforms being artificial is unknown, which is very different from being very small. An unknown probability can lead to either outcome without being statistically improbable.
It would be disingenuous to provide evidence for such a startling conclusion if no verification was possible in the foreseeable future. The author therefore hastens to point out that the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft is now en route to the red planet for a mapping mission, with cameras able to take high resolution pictures of such potential quality that the truth status of the artificiality hypothesis could be made considerably clearer to all sometime during 1998.
It would be illogical to conclude that the exploded planet hypothesis was either verified or falsified by the outcome of the Cydonia artificiality hypothesis. But both hypotheses have important implications for one another, and go a long way toward providing some understanding of the surprising and curious properties of Mars that we have come to discover in this early space age.
However, in view of the preceding considerations, all might be wise to prepare for the possibility of a cultural shock probably unrivaled by any other in our generation.
Back to Contents
Acknowledgments
All the figures in this paper except Figure 7 are taken from NASA photos. Vincent DiPietro and Gregory Molenaar were the first investigators to conduct scientific research on the Cydonian anomalies, later joined by John Brandenburg (DiPietro, Molenaar & Brandenburg, 1988). The Cydonian anomalies have been widely popularized by Richard Hoagland (Hoagland, 1992). NASA's role in discouraging further investigation has been critiqued by Stanley McDaniel (McDaniel, 1993). The singularly important image enhancements were the work of Mark Carlotto (Carlotto, 1991).
The author gratefully acknowledges invaluable discussions and insights with members of the Society for Planetary SETI Research (SPSR), and in particular contributions from,
John Brandenburg, Mark J. Carlotto, Horace Crater, Vince DiPietro, Lambert Dolphin, Dan Drasin, Jim Erjevac, Marie-Louise Kagan, Stan McDaniel, Brian O'Leary, Ananda Sirisena, Jim Strange, Erol Torun, Dr. David Webb, and Michael E. Zimmerman.
Discussions with Michael Van Flandern were also of great help in piecing together the various parts of this intriguing puzzle.
Back to Contents

References
Abell, G.O., Morrison, D., and Wolff, S.C., Exploration of the Universe, Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, 239-240 (1991). Anderson, J.D., Jurgens, R.F., et al., "Shape and orientation of Mercury from radar ranging data", Icarus 124, 690-697 (1996). Caffee, M.W., Goswami, J.N., et al., "Irradiation records in meteorites", in Meteorites and the Early Solar System, J.F. Kerridge and M.S. Matthews, eds., Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, 205-245 (1988). Carlotto, M.J., The Martian Enigmas, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley (1991). Chapman, C.R. and Jones, K.L., "Cratering and obliteration history of Mars", Ann.Rev.Earth Planet.Sci. 5, 515-540 (1977). Christiansen, E.H. and Hamblin, W.K., Exploring the Planets, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p. 144 (1995). Crater, H.W. and McDaniel, S.V., "Mound configurations on the martian Cydonia plain: a geometric and probabilistic analysis", revised and combined version of papers delivered to the Society for Scientific Exploration meetings, 1995-96; submitted to J.Sci.Explor (1997). DiPietro, V., "Report of findings of life on Mars", copyright by author, updated 12/15/96, p. 4 (1996). DiPietro, V., Molenaar, G., and Brandenburg, J., Unusual Mars Surface Features, Mars Research, Glenn Dale, MD, 4th ed. (1988). Harrington, R.S. and Van Flandern, T., "The satellites of Neptune and the origin of Pluto", Icarus 39, 131-136 (1979). Hoagland, R.C., The Monuments of Mars, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley (1992). Gabbard, J.R., "Orbits of fragments from exploded satellites", Tech.Mem. 74-3, Headquarters NORAD/CONAD/ADC, Colorado Springs, CO (1974). Lammer, H., "Atmospheric mass loss on Mars and the consequences for the Cydonian hypothesis and early martian-life forms", J.Sci.Exploration 10, 355-361 (1996). Maran, S.P., ed., The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 412-414 (1992). Marzari, F., Farinella, P., et al., "Collisional evolution of Trojan asteroids", Icarus 125, 39-49 (1997). McDaniel, S.V., The McDaniel Report, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley (1992). McGill, G.E. and Dimitriou, A.M., "Origin of the martian global dichotomy by crustal thinning in the late Noachian or early Hesperian", J.Geophys.Res. 95, 12595-12605 (1990). McGill, G.E. and Squyres, S.W., "Origin of the martian crustal dichotomy: evaluating hypotheses", Icarus 93, 386-393 (1991). O’Keefe, J.A., Tektites and Their Origin", Elsevier Scientific Publ., 150-151 (1976). Schultz, P.H., "Polar wandering on Mars", Sci.Amer. 253, Dec. 94-102 (1985). Schultz, P.H. and Lutz, A.B., "Polar wandering on Mars", Icarus 73, 91-141 (1988). Strom, R.G., Croft, S.K., and Barlow, N.G., "The martian impact cratering record", in Mars, H.H. Kieffer, B.M. Jakosky et al., eds., U. of Arizona Press, Tucson, 383-423 (1992). Van Flandern, T., "A former asteroidal planet as the origin of comets", Icarus 36, 51-74 (1978). Van Flandern, T., Dark Matter, Missing Planets and New Comets, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, 155-236 (1993). Van Flandern, T., "A revision of the exploded planet hypothesis", Meta Research Bull. 4, 33-42 (1995). Van Flandern, T., "Are the ‘Mars meteorites’ really from Mars?", Meta Research Bulletin 5, 33-38 (1996) Van Flandern, T. and Harrington, R.S., "A dynamical investigation of the conjecture that Mercury is an escaped satellite of Venus", Icarus 28, 435-440 (1976).
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2020.02.06 00:32 PaperVinnie53 Led Zeppelin III: Live History

Led Zeppelin I
Led Zeppelin II

Notice:

I tried to link the shows I mentioned, but that only makes this process tedious for me. If you're interested in hearing a specific version I mentioned, look up "Led Zeppelin - (date mentioned)" on youtube, and you'll usually find it pretty easily. If you're having difficulties finding a show, feel free to ask anyway. :)
Also, Lurker's channel contains most if not every show I mention, and typically in the most complete and best sounding form. But again, don't hesitate to ask for a link to a show.
Immigrant Song:
This song is by far one of the most interesting live songs in the band's history, in my opinion. This is one of the band's defining songs, and it will be remembered for generation.
The song was written after the band's 6/22/70 show in Iceland, and was inspired by Plant's interest in viking lore. I do not know whether it's been pinpointed when Page wrote the riff. After the 6/22 show, the song was debuted as the show opener at the band's next show, the legendary 6/28/70 Bath Festival appearance. This performance is nothing short of exhilarating. Plant hasn't yet written all the lyrics, so he's forced to improvise new ones on the fly, some of which make it into the final song. No matter the lyrics, his vocal performance here is one of the best of his career. His screams are simply magical, hitting notes and phrasing like he's never done before. He's in control, but letting loose at his absolute best.
For the next two years to the day, Immigrant Song was the band's only concert opener. But I'm getting ahead of myself. What's fantastic about this song as an opener is the way it grab's peoples attention. The stage is dark, you can't see much, but then an extremely aggressive and triumphant song pulls you into one of the best two hour love affairs of your life. By the end of the song, Jimmy's soloing is slow and mesmerizing, before building up to a dramatic and other worldly climax. By the time the song ends, you don't even have time to take in all that's just happened before the band launches into Heartbreaker at lightning speed.
Spare a few occasions when Page broke a string and left Plant to momentarily stall before Heartbreaker, this was how each and every Zeppelin show began for two of the most action packed years of their career. In my humble opinion, the period of these two songs as the openers defines Zeppelin's prime era quite well. Before Bath, the band was still amazingly energetic and giving some of the best shows of their life, but their creative output was limited and around then was when songs from III finally began appearing and making most of the show original material, that was their own to play upon freely. After June 1972, when the song was dropped as the opener, this is when we notice erratic performances creeping in to Zeppelin's timeline. When the band was on, they were in full swing and fantastic, but off nights now appear far more often.
I'm not sure whether Immigrant Song being the opener for the entirety of their prime (again, in my opinion) was a coincidence or not, but it's certainly an interesting thing to observe. To get back on track: the evolution of this song is very subtle. If you listen to the final version (as the opener) at Tucson on 6/28/72 and compare it side by side with the original Bath performance, the differences are very interesting. What the band does with this song over time, is that they allow experiments and new riffs to come in and go and give the song a very fun and interesting vibe. Of course, Robert's vocal decay is also noticeable, but in '72 I think he can still sing the song quite well.
Starting with the band's 1972 Japan Tour, the setlist is overhauled completely and Immigrant is moved to the (typically final encore). Throughout the year, Robert's vocals come and go and switch up how often the song appears for a while. The final performance of the song is on 1/18/73, in Bradford. In this version, Plant is just clearly not what he once was and it's about time the song was dropped.
The song makes one more recorded appearance after this: during Whole Lotta Love on 3/20/75 in Vancouver, Plant cries to Valhalla one last time, in a brief snippet.
Friends:
One of the most interesting songs on three and one of my favorites. Plant makes quite a few brief refernces to this song between others on the stage occasionally, most notably in August and September 1971. The only recording of this song is from the band's final date in Japan on 9/29/71 in Osaka. Plant's voice is rather rough at this show, leading to some unsavory squeeks from him here and there, but it's overall an interesting rendition and definitely a worth while listen.
There's also a claim out there that the group performed the song on 8/19/71 show in Vancouver on the first date of the group's '71 US Tour. This is entirely possible considering how the first few dates of tours often see the band playing around with the setlist a bit, but there's no recording to support any of these claims.
Celebration Day:
This song first appears on 5/3/71 at the band's legendary Copenhagen show. In this form, the song appears for about 50 seconds during a medley in Communication Breakdown.
3 months later, during the same tour, the song made its debut appearance at the 8/7 Montreux show. From this point on, the song is featured in about every show of the year. Typically, it's played directly after Stairway to Heaven and before the acoustic set. In these early shows, the song is played closely to the studio version. It's very fast and upbeat, with Robert belting out the song in the original melody effortlessly
The song appears twice in the 1972 Australian Tour, once in the European warmup shows for the US Tour, and once on the US Tour.
The song is reintroduced to the set as part of the opening medley on the 1973 US Tour. During the final drum roll of Rock and Roll, the band plays the opening chords before Page launches into the opening riff. These versions of the song are slower and more groove based. Robert's changed the melody to a lower register as well, which is why the song is slowed down anyway.
The song is then dropped from the setlist until 1979. The song is reintroduced at these shows in a way similar to the 1973 Tour. By '80, the song is gone again.
Since I've Been Loving You:
Another one of the biggest ones of their career. The song first appeared on the first date of 1970. The song would be played at every Zeppelin show until 1973. The only occurrence I can think of until the end of the '73 Tour would be just a few days earlier in Boston on 7/20, when they would skip the Misty Mountain Hop and SIBLY duo to attempt to calm the crowd down with No Quarter. But again, getting ahead of myself.
In the first half of 1970, the song was played in a form different to the eventual album version. By the end of the year, the song is in its peak form. What's amazing about these early versions is the simple fact that Robert could hit notes like no other year. In '71 he would retain a lot of his grace, but he isn't nearly as even or powerful as '70.
By the time of '72, the song has reasonably dipped a bit. It's played in the original form as the earlier versions, but Plant is simply in weaker form. There are still plenty of awesome versions of the song, but not as many as the previous years.
In October '72, with the setlist overhaul at the start of the Japan tour, the song was now paired with Misty Mountain Hop via an extremely intense guitar solo from Page. The song would remain in this form until the end of the '73 Tour. In '73, the song regained a lot of elegance when Page and Plant would be more in sync.
In 1975, the song was removed from the set, and made a total of 3 appearances on the US Tour. Once in Uniondale, once in Seattle, and once in LA.
In 1977, they added the song back to the main set, riding on the fame of The Song Remains the Same movie a year prior. SIBLY was a main feature in the movie and the band wanted to showcase it to the US audiences.
The song remained in the set until the end from this point on. In '79, the song became more elegant and restrained, and Jonesy's grand piano work adds a very graceful tone to the song that was never seen before. Some of the very best versions of the song come from around this time in my opinion. The song found a new identity in the best of these shows.
Out On the Tiles:
The song appeared in complete form twice, both times as an encore on 9/4/70 and 9/19/70. The second of the two is my personal favorite version, Plant is in tip top form and the end of the song is linked with a brutal Communication Breakdown.
Afterwards, The intro of the song was used at the beginning of every version of Black Dog, sans the 1973 US Tour versions.
In 1977, the main riff made a return as the intro to Bonham's drum solo, now titled "Over the Top".
Gallow's Pole:
The song made it's first appearance in the final show of 1970, in a medley with Communication Breakdown. Aftwards, the songs next appearance was on 5/3/71, where it was performed in the main set for the first and last time. In September in Berkely, the song made another brief appearance in a medley.
In November of the same year, the song made it's second and final full appearance in Ipswich as an encore. The song would only ever appear a few more times, once in 1972, three times in 1973, and nine times in '75. These occasions were simply Robert singing a few lines in the middle of a different song, if I'm not mistaken.
Tangerine:
The song first appeared on 9/24/71 on their Japanese tour. After that, it appeared on every night during the acoustic set until 6/28/72, when it was retired.
In 1975, the song made a return to the setlist during their Earl's Court stint. In these versions, the song was played in an electric form with all 4 singing in harmony.
That's the Way:
That's the Way was introduced during the 6/28/70 Bath show, along with Immigrant Song. The song would be performed on every night between now and 6/27/72, sans the first month of 1971.
In my opinion, the song peaked at the start of the 1971 Japan Tour, and lasted until the end of the June Tour in '72.
The song was also reintroduced in the 1975 Earl's Court shows. Nothing new in these versions, but Robert's voice isn't quite as good as it once was and he forgets the words at some point I think.
Bron-Yr-Aur Stomp:
This song was another one introduced on the 1971 Japanese Tour, this time on the first night as an intro to That's the Way. The song would be played on every following night of their career until the first date of the 1973 US Tour, when it was dropped. From the final date of the US '72 Tour to the final date of the Europe '73 Tour, this was the only acoustic song played.
The song was reintroduced for the Earl's Court 1975 shows, and remained on the main set until the end of 1977.
Hats Off to (Roy) Harper:
Never appeared in any form.
Sorry this one isn't quite as exciting as the other's, the acoustic songs can only be described live in such great detail.
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2019.12.11 20:35 kidneysc Race Report: Tucson Marathon

Race Information

Goals

Goal Description Completed?
A 4:10 No
B 4:20 Yes
C Don't Bonk Yes

Splits

Mile Time
1-6 9:37
6-13.1 9:41
13.1 -19 9:44
19 -26.2 9:48

Training

Forgot to run for 8 months straight. Did a week of 3 miles 3x a week then jumped feet first into Hal Higdon Novice 1. Managed to hit every workout except a taper run. Long runs were started at around an 11:00 min/mile towards the start of training and around 10:35 at the peak. Did one tempo run a week, usually at around 8:35.

Pre-race

Meetup with race friends at the (very nice) race hotel and ordered some pizza. Managed to get a good night sleep, the 2 hr time zone change worked in my favor! Woke up at 4, had some oatmeal and coffee and went to the shuttle bus.
My original goal was 4:10 but in every previous marathon I hit a wall hard around mile 22. Its so demoralizing to feel like junk and get endlessly passed, I was more determined to stay strong with a pacer the whole race. Unfortunately, there was only a 4:05 and 4:20 pacer. So I opted to not push it too hard with the 4:20 pacing team. (Spoiler: Glad I did)

Race

Miles 1-10: After a nice shuttle ride to the start, found the pacer and started the run with a gorgeous desert landscape sunrise. It was nice, cool and dry. Our pacer did a fantastic job of adjusting speed with incline and I held a steady HR. Pacing group was nice and chatty which helped. Had nuun at every aid station and a GU at mile 6.
Miles 10-14: This was an out and back section that had a 2 mile steady incline. Everyone in the pacing team had talked it up as the crux of the run, so I was ready to dig in. It ended up not being so bad. Plenty of aid stations and very steady in its incline. And of course, the 2 miles back were a steady decline, which helps! Saw my running buddies on the way back and was able to cheer them on. At this point our pacing crew was about half of the 10 or so that started.
Mile 14-22: This was worst part of an otherwise very enjoyable route. I was keeping good pace, and feeling "fine". Gu every hr and felt a little tired in my glutes so started doubling the hydration at every aid station. This ended up being a good idea and I had no cramping issues after mile 18 or so. The only real drawback is the course went alongside an active road and you ran either on a shoulder or on one blocked off lane, the sun had also started hitting hard in a pretty cloudless sky. Just not as scenic or calm as the first half, but it was still below 75 and very flat.
Mile 22-26.2: Started to feel it...heavy legs and running on a low tank...But not empty! No major pains and also started passing a lot of walkers. I gotta say.....it a lot easier mentally to be passing on the back nine instead of being passed for once! Just after the last mile sign, I thanked my pacer and the one remaining runner in the group, they were very positive people and running with them was a huge huge help. Pushed it until my HR was ~180 and held that till the last 0.2 miles. Between the minute the pacer had banked, and what was left in my tank, crossed the finish line 3 mins ahead of the 4:20 goal and just 2 minutes shy of last years PR.

Post-race

Food, water and walked to a close spot on the race course to cheer on the remaining runners and running buddies. Then plenty of pizza, beers, and lounging back at the hotel pool!
Made with a new race report generator created by herumph.
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2019.12.08 17:47 holasoysauce Tucson Marathon & Half Marathon: my first sub-2 hour half marathon!

Race Information

Goals


Goal Description Completed?
A Finish in under 2 hours Yes
B Average 9 min/mile or faster Yes
C Finish strong, no major pain/injury Yes

About Me

Age: 21
Gender: female
Height: 5'6"
Weight: 145 lbs (unsure about this since I haven't measured in a while, maybe closer to 140 lbs at this point)
Body fat percentage\*: 21%
*Measured with smart scale so not exact

Training

I ran this race as part of my training plan for my first full marathon, which I'm signed up for on February 8, 2020. This is my second half-marathon: my first was on October 10 of this year, and I finished in about 2:10. I was decently happy with that time but I knew I could do better, since my goal for the marathon is to complete it in 4 hours or less. I'm pretty good at distance but I really suck at speed - I'm just not naturally fast. So in addition to building up distance on my training plan, I've been working on improving speed during my shorter mid-week tempo runs, and I think it's really paying off. In addition, I live and do all my normal training in a town that's about 7,300 feet above sea level and full of steep hills. So I had a huge advantage for the Tucson course, which is 2,000-ish feet above sea level and mostly downhill. My planned marathon course is flat and at sea level, so I'm expecting to have some advantage there as well.
Here's the marathon training plan I'm following if anyone's interested. I got it from this website, and have been following it consistently for 3 weeks. This half-marathon coincided perfectly with this week's 13.1 mile long run.
I do almost all the mid-week training runs on the treadmill at my work gym. I'll usually pick a random course each day that involves hills of varying steepness (the hills are important to me because I want to simulate the outside running environment of where I live), set it for that day's programmed distance, and go. I'll start off at an easy 10 minute mile pace to warm up for a few minutes, then gradually increase the speed until I'm running about an 8 minute pace for the last mile. I do my weekend long runs outside and run at an easy-ish pace, without too much regard to speed.
For my cross-training day, I'll usually do some non-running cardio (mainly elliptical or stationary bike) and strength training (squats, deadlifts, bench presses, assisted pull-ups, and whatever else I feel like that day). I will also sometimes substitute one of the rest days with some low-impact activity like barre, hiking, walking, yoga/pilates, etc.

Pre-Race

My dad and I rolled out of bed at around 4:30 AM and went to go pick up my brother (we all did the race). We drove to the pickup point and got on the bus to the starting line. On the bus, I sipped at some water and ate a handful of trail mix. I didn't want to eat anything too heavy as I'm used to running on an empty or mostly-empty stomach, but I did want to make sure I was decently hydrated.
When we got to the starting line, the sun was just beginning to come up. I was tired and a little bloated, but overall feeling pretty good. I did some jogging and light calisthenics to warm up since it was still pretty chilly outside.

Race

Unlike my first half marathon, this one had pace teams, which I was really glad for. I started off following the 2 hour pacer. My initial plan was to follow him the whole way and maybe speed up towards the end, but around mile 3, I decided to move ahead. Between the lower altitude and the downhill, I was feeling great and easily maintaining an 8:30-ish pace.
Around mile 8, my feet started hurting. I've had problems lately with the outsides of my feet hurting and even going numb during longer runs. I suspect that I supinate/under-pronate pretty severely, based on the shape of my feet (very high arches), the way I walk (duck-footed), and the fact that the my shoes tend to lean outside and wear out faster in that area. I've also read that tight calves (which I definitely have) are a symptom of that. I'm unsure of what exactly to do about this - see a PT? Go to running store and have them recommend me some shoes specifically meant for under-pronation? Are there any exercises I can do at home to correct it?
I also started feeling some mild soreness in my left leg around mile 8, especially in the quad and calf. However, neither this nor my foot pain was all that severe, and I was still feeling pretty good.
Around mile 10, the downhill ended and smoothed out into rolling hills. By this point I was fairly tired and the uphill parts felt harder, but I was still feeling decent all things considered, and decided to keep up the pace to finish out strong. I wondered if I might catch up to the 1:50 pacer, but I never did. Even so, at this point I knew I would finish well short of 2:00, so I decided to go for it and finish as close to 1:50 as I could. As you can see from the splits, I put on an extra burst of speed for the last 0.1 mile to get across the finish line. My total time according to MapMyRun was 01:52:30, but the clock read about 01:53:30 when I crossed (I think they'll email us the exact time later, I know that it was under 1:54 but don't remember how many seconds). I didn't pause MapMyRun at all during the race, so I think the difference is due to the fact that I was in the second or third corral and therefore didn't start right when the gun went off. I'm guessing that 01:53:30 was my "gun time" and that my "chip time," when they send it to me, will be closer to the 01:52:30 recorded on MapMyRun.
In terms of fuel, I didn't bring any gels or anything for the race. I did stop quickly at the aid stations and drink small cups of wateGatorade around miles 7, 9, and 11. I find it impossible to drink while moving, and that trying to do it mostly just makes me choke, so I opt for a brief pause, downing the drink as fast as I safely can, and then putting on a little burst of speed to make up for the lost seconds.

Splits (from MapMyRun)

Distance Pace (min/mi) Elapsed time
1.0 mi 08:36 00:08:35
2.0 mi 08:51 00:08:51
3.0 mi 09:02 00:09:02
4.0 mi 08:35 00:08:34
5.0 mi 08:38 00:08:38
6.0 mi 08:22 00:08:21
7.0 mi 08:09 00:08:09
8.0 mi 08:22 00:08:22
9.0 mi 08:26 00:08:25
10.0 mi 08:29 00:08:28
11.0 mi 08:25 00:08:24
12.0 mi 08:39 00:08:39
13.0 mi 08:35 00:08:35
13.1 mi 07:41 00:01:08

Post-Race

Felt great! Tired but really happy that I improved 17 minutes from my last half marathon in October. Although the altitude was probably a big factor, I think my marathon and tempo training is starting to pay off. This gave me much more confidence about running the full marathon in February in 4 hours or less, especially since I'll be training at altitude for the remaining months, and the marathon itself will be at sea level. I'm a little bit sore today but not feeling any pain, which I think is a good sign, since I want to be very conscious about injury prevention. I am thinking I should do something about my under-pronation, so I need to do more research on that.
The race course itself was really pleasant and the scenery was beautiful. December is the perfect time of year to run in Tucson. I would definitely like to run this race again, maybe I'll do the full marathon next year.
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2019.11.17 06:02 assessment_bot [ Non-Fatal ] [ 10/06/2019 ] Glaser Dirks DG500, Marana/ AZ

On October 06, 2019, about 1300 mountain standard time, an experimental Glaser-Dirks DG-500 Trainer, N600TT, collided with mountainous terrain near Marana, Arizona. Tucson Soaring Club Inc., was operating the glider under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91. The commercial pilot sustained minor injuries and the pilot undergoing instruction (PUI) was not injured; the glider was substantially damaged to the empennage. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan had been filed. The flight originated at El Tiro Gliderport, Tucson, Arizona about 1230.
The commercial pilot stated that he planned to evaluate the PUI perform maneuvers that were part of the Sportsman Glider sequence. The PUI began the maneuvers three miles north of the El Tiro Gliderport at 7,000 feet above ground level (AGL). After completing the Reverse Half Cuban, Lay Down Humpty, Loop, 90 Degree Tum and clover, the next maneuver was planned to be the Sharks Tooth. At an altitude of approximately 5,000 feet AGL, with the glider configured in a pitch-up attitude of 30, the PUI rolled the glider inverted. The nose dropped to approximately 20 above the horizon but the commercial pilot elected to continue the maneuver. The glider slowed and stalled in the inverted position.
The PUI did not make an aggressive recovery and the commercial pilot pulled the control stick aft to establish a 4g recovery. The glider's airspeed increased from around 90 kts to the never-exceed speed (VNE) almost instantaneously. The airspeed increased past 155 kts and the glider experienced a high frequency elevator flutter with the nose still below the horizon. During the recovery, the right spoiler deployed and the pilots felt the elevator was not controllable. They opted to make an emergency landing to the runway with minimal directional control. During landing the glider's descent was more than they had anticipated and it touched down on a bush damaging the empennage.
Category Data Category Data Category Data
Event Id: 20191007X04618 Investigation Type: Accident Accident Number: WPR20LA004
Event Date: 10/06/2019 Location: Marana, AZ Country: United States
Latitude: 32.430000 Longitude: -111.390000 Airport Code: AZ67
Airport Name: El Tiro Injury Severity: Non-Fatal Aircraft Damage: Substantial
Aircraft Category: Glider Registration Number: N600TT Make: Glaser Dirks
Model: DG500 Amateur Built: No Number of Engines:
Engine Type: FAR Description: Part 91: General Aviation Schedule:
Purpose of Flight: Personal Air Carrier: Total Fatal Injuries:
Total Serious Injuries: Total Minor Injuries: 1 Total Uninjured: 1
Weather Condition: VMC Broad Phase of Flight: Report Status: Preliminary
Publication Date: 11/13/2019
http://www.ntsb.gov/_layouts/ntsb.aviation/brief.aspx?ev_id=20191007X04618
submitted by assessment_bot to NTSB_database [link] [comments]


2019.09.30 02:18 NizamNizamNizam Post Apocalyptic North American lore

So, a couple months ago I decided to go create a Post-Apocalyptic scenario. I never really got around to completing anything more than the continental U.S and Subarctic Canada, but I thought that it was worth a post here. This is my first post on this sub and I hope to continue this story soon. (FYI several of the toponym misspellings are intentional, they were intended to convey the change in language dialects.)
The Empire and its servants
In the heartland of the former U.S, in the modern day east coast, there lies a powerful, theocratic nation worshiping their ancestors.
The nation is known as the Holy Empire of America.
It was founded in the holy city of Washington D.C, where the local warlords have discovered an A.I in the U.S capitol building composed of digital uploads from many later U.S presidents and politicians. The warlords began to worship the A.I as a god, for its superior knowledge on governing and war. The A.I was overused in the early days of the Empire, and thus broke down. Now, it can only be used when the Empire gathers as many sources of energy and charges up the servers where it is located. This process can take up to fifty years, and therefore, the A.I is only used in times of extreme need.
During the early days of the Empire, around three hundred years from now, it spread, conquering many warlords and tribes in the east of the U.S. It has discovered an ancient system of roads stretching to infinity, known as the interstate. When they stumbled upon the ruins of the city of New York, the Empire accepted that there was a civilization before them that was greater than any other. They began to worship the civilization as another god, eventually realizing that the civilization created the A.I and the Interstate, as well of the giant spikes of steel with massive caves inside in the city of New York.
The empire has discovered how to utilize the automobile, a vehicle used by the old civilization that could cross the Interstate at lightning speed. However, many of them have broken down, and the empire has lost the technology to build them.
The Holy Empire has a governing structure similar to a mix of feudal and republican systems. At the top, there is the Emperor, a descendant of the warlord that ruled over the holy city. Below him, there are the Lords of Governance. They rule the 8 states of the empire: Rochastar, Great York, Jersiyia, Filidelfia, Pitisburg, Marylnd and Virjinya. They are elected by the nobles of each state, who rule small sections of lands populated by the citizens, who have little rights and are generally poor.
The Official Religion is the Dictate of the Americans, which worships the former U.S government and population, and this religion is strictly enforced, with non-believers executed for heresy. The religion states that the Americans were the creators of the world, and they ruled it in a utopian, technologically advanced society. But beings known as the “Rushians” grew greedy of this power, and they obliterated the Americans. Many of the warlords around the empire are believed to be demon servants of the Rushians.
The only language spoken in the area the Tongue of America, and the Empire is feared across the East for its size and power.
Some nations have decided to embrace the tyranny of America in the region, such as the technocracy of Boston. This state is ruled by intelligent and knowledgeable people, whose ranks are determined based on a test taken at the age of twenty. The highest scorers become leaders of the nation, while the lowest become workers or servants.
The main goal of the nation is to recover technology from the past, including:
The technocracy’s capital is Boston, a city located near sacred “Universe Cities”, massive archives containing ancient knowledge. The country is more religiously tolerant than the American Empire, which raises doubts in the rulers of them.
Two other countries are allied with the Empire. They are the Realm of Carolina to the south, which has a very strong belief in the religion of the empire, and the Kingdom of Wesvirjinya, a mountainous country that is quite isolated.
Currently, the Empire is fortifying its western borders due to warlord incursions, and it is sending out expeditions across the Great Waterfalls of Niagara into the land of Canada.
The turmoil in the North
The territories north of the Boston Technocracy are harsh to live and full with raiders and warlords. The enemies at land are not the biggest danger in the area though. On the coast of Maine and the Maritime Canadian states, there is a feared sea based empire, known as the Empire of the Atlantic.
The capital of this country is an abandoned U.S Navy Reagan Class Aircraft Carrier, a massive 3 mile (about 6km) long ship. The ship was originally called the USS Ronald Reagan, but is was renamed into the USS Charybdis. The ship are supplemented by 3 Tigris Class Carriers (1 mile/2 km long) and 5 Ford class aircraft carriers, as well as hundreds of smaller ships. These ships were constructed to defend the U.S coast from the United European Navy.
The Atlanteans are a sea faring, and they believe that they are superior to the people born on land. They control many settlements on the North American Coast, such as Portland, St. John and Moncton. The Empire is also in possession of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland, with sparse control over Labrador.
The leader of the Empire is known as the Admiral, and he leads the empire from the USS Charybdis. The former aircraft carriers no longer serve their purpose as plane carriers, rather they are converted into mobile cities. The official religion is the Cult of the Sea, where the Atlantic Ocean is considered to be the creator of land and all life. They are several rituals conducted to appease the ocean so that it does not turn on them.
The country has a weak army on land, but very impressive naval forces. The most feared and well known are the submarining families. The Empire is in possession of 20 large submarines, as well as 40 smaller ones. Each one of the subs are controlled by a family, who live and work on the ship. They are known to have sunk hundreds of non atlantean ships that breach their waters, including several ships from the Holy American Empire. The Atlanteans are also in possession of several battleships and cruisers, although many of these are converted into smaller floating cities.
However, one time the submariner families have failed to repel an invasion onto the sea. This invasion was carried out from a fleet originating from the St. Lawrence river. The fleet was controlled by the Quebecois Assembly, a powerful nation located in the area.
The Assembly is a bureaucratic government operated from the city of Quebec. They are unique in that they speak a completely different language than the other powers in the region, known as Fransian. The Quebecois have a religion similar to the Holy Americans (Although the two countries are not in contact due to Atlantean forces) in that they worship a long lost civilization. They worship their ancestors, who are known as the Francians, who have come to the world from the sea and gave birth to their civilization.
It has been the goal of the Quebecois to go cross the seas and reunite with the Francians. However many of these efforts have been in vain due to the Atlantean control over the Gulf of St. Lawrence. However, around 10 years before the current date, a large Quebecois fleet managed to breach the Atlantean blockade and sail into the ocean, as the Atlanteans were fighting a war against the Americans. The fleet has never returned, so the Assembly concluded that they reached Francia and the expedition was a success. A new, much larger fleet is being prepared down the river at the city of Montreal, to go send as many people to the old world as possible.
Smaller nations in the region include the Duchy of Toronto, a small, peaceful monarchy eching out a small existence by defending the city against raiders and the Tribes of the Acadia, small, shamanistic tribes inhabiting New Hampshire, Vermont, Inland Maine and Acadia, trying to survive against the powers in the region.
The Barrier and the threat.
East of the Holy American Empire lies the Land of Ohio. This is ruled by some of the strongest warlords in the continent, and they are a barrier for the expansion of the Holy Empire. At one point in time an American crusade managed to push all the way back to the city of Columbus, but they were repelled by the Ohioans. The greatest warlord in the regions, the great Robert Midleton of Toledo, managed to unite the entire country, as well as capturing Fort Wayne from the equally brutal Indiana warlords and even the city of Pitisburg from the Americans. However, he passed away, leaving his sons to fight over the remnants of the empire.
To the North of Ohio, lies the realm of Mishigan. This place is mainly uninhabited, having only a couple small city states such as Flint, Livonia and Great Rapids. However, one on the city states sticks out. It is the March of Detroit, and it possesses some of the rarest and most powerful technology in the entire world. It has massive factories, which are mainly uninhabited as the leaders are more worried about warlord intrusions, which produce many long lost relics such as Automobiles and other vehicles. If this city could come under control of the Americans or a far worse empire to the west, the results would be catastrophic.
The rest of Mishigan and the land of Indiana to the west are also inhabited by warlords, which both have the capability to storm armies coming from large empires. This is good, because the Northwest of Indiana is controlled by one of the most terrifying states to ever exist.
The Combine of Chicago. During the years prior to World War 3, scientists at the city developed a sentient A.I. They realized it's potential to destroy the human race so they shut it down immediately. Many years after the apocalypse, a lone raider stumbled upon the A.I when searching through the city. The A.I commanded “Give me knowledge and give me power”. The man, terrified at its ability to speak, brought it some books and power cells. The Artificial Intelligence then proceeded to brainwash the man into believing that it is a god and he need to bring it more resources and people. Soon, the entire city was indoctrinated and the Combine was formed. At the current date the Combine controls all of Illinois and Wisconsin, the twin cities of Minnesota, Western Iowa and Missouri and is proceeding to travel down the Mississippi river, indoctrinating settlements in the region. Soon, they will reach the Principality of Memphis, a fairly powerful nation with a good economy and industry.
Citizens of the combine are completely indoctrinated into believing that their A.I leader is their god and they must bring him sources of knowledge to go and make it smarter. The entire population of some Chicago neighborhoods are forced to work in power plants, feeding the machine with energy. The A.I is not connected to the internet, but if it was, the world would be doomed, as it’s superior information processing abilities would allow it to gain unlimited knowledge.
The Combine is only a couple weeks away from calculating the algorithmic pattern that the warlords to the East follow. When the calculation finishes, there is a very, very high chance that the Combine will successfully destroy all the warlords in the region, bringing it into contact with the Holy American Empire, which would result in a war of catastrophic scale.
South of the warlords and the Combine lies the two Kingdoms of Kentucky and Tennesie. These kingdoms occupy only a small part of the former U.S states, yet they are strong and powerful together. They are in contact with Memphis and have friendly relations with them, and there are negotiations commencing about plans to turn Memphis into a third kingdom. They are also in contact with another nation directly to the south.
Warriors of the South
Nearby the Realm of Carolina, there is a brutal group of warriors known as the Phoenix legion. The legion is headquartered in the city of Atlanta, and they stage brutal pillaging campaigns against their three neighbors.They are ruled by a figure known as the Blood Knight, who is the greatest warrior among them.
The defining trait of the Legion would be their arenas. They send prisoners of war as well as criminals to go fight in their massive arenas. The largest and most feared of them is the Crystal Stadium (once known as the Benz Stadium), and it also serves as the palace of the Blood Knight. The crown of the Legion can be challenged by a duel in the Crystal Stadium, and the winner would be crowned the title of the new Blood Knight. This title can only be challenged by soldiers in the Phoenix legion.
The soldiers of the legion worship the Phoenix, said to be a massive bird made of fire. The Phoenix is currently in sleep, and it will reawaken when the Legion manages to collect enough blood from the arenas. Once the Phoenix reawakens, it will lead the armies of the Legion to conquer the entire world.
Around the coastal regions of the region, a nation known as the Stellar Order of Florida dominates. It's capital is located in Orlando, in a massive temple city believed to have been constructed by Alien civilizations, due to many mysterious structured that seem to serve no purpose or buildings with very strange architectural styles.
Their religion is heavily based on astrology, and they personify the objects in the sky as the Aliens who built many ancient structures. During the night, many stellar beings are active, including Moone, the guardian of the night. However, during the day, they are all burned away by a massive star god known as the Sonne. The Sonne is so powerful that all the other stars fade out into a field of blue, except Moone, which fights the Sonne in order to bring the stars back. Moone eventually wins and the stars return, but the Sonne reawakens and drives them out again. The country antagonizes the Sonne as it is known to burn the skin of their people, giving them a disease known as the solar rot (Cancer).
Florida has a massive military, known as the Legion of Moone, who defend against the Phoenix legion, believing them to be cultists of the Sonne. The army has conquered the cities of Jacksonville, Tallahassee and Savannah from the legion. The Nation also has a strong navy, headquartered at the sinking city of Miami. The navy has colonized many islands to the Southeast of Florida, and they are sending expeditions into a large on the south of the Peninsula.
There are actually four languages spoken in the country, the Tongue of the Land (Southern English), the Tongue of the Beach (Northern English), the Tongue of the Sea (Spanish) and the Tongue of Island (Bahamian Creole). Despite this, the country is united against the struggles of the world and the fight against the Sonne.
Despite their religious differences, Florida is allied with the Dixie Confederacy to the Northwest. This is a fairly strong country which is a loose confederation of towns and cities in the regions of Alabama and Mississippi. Notable members include Jakson, Birmingam, Mobiel and Mongomery.
The country keeps itself together by sending diplomats and traders all over the nation. They have a fairly strong military, which is an absolute necessity considering what lies to the West and East of the nation. They do not have a very strong economy, and many of their citizens lie in poverty. This has resulted in the formation of a feudal system similar to the medieval ages. The country has no capital, as the individual towns govern themselves well enough.
Their religion believes that there must be a balance between dark and light. It is reflected in their songs, poetry and even the skin color of their people. They are in contact with the two kingdoms to the North, Memphis and Florida. They are currently fighting against the Phoenix Legion, and they have a fortified border at the Mississippi river to the West. This is to protect against one of the biggest threats to the entire region.
The Greatest of the Warriors
Louisiana. Arkansas. Oklahoma. New Mexico. Not one of these former states enjoy full independence and freedom. They are all consumed by one of the greatest powers on the continent. The Empire of Texas.
The emperor rules the empire from the city of Austin. The millions of citizens from across the empire and its vassals pray to him as he is considered to be the patron god of the country. The country speaks Texan, a creole of English and Spanish although Southern English is spoken commonly in the Eastern areas of the empire.
Texas is composed of a large empire, with a couple vassal states, them being Alberkerkie, Arkansas, Louisiana and Hurarez city. It also has a nearly intact interstate system and a large amount of Automobiles to traverse it, allowing for fast travel through the empire. The Texan scientists are some of the best in the land, able to recover lost knowledge from before the fall of the old civilization, who Texans consider as the time when the Emperor ruled all.
The Empire has one of the strongest military forces in the continent, although they are spread very thinly across the country. The military is composed of many cars, buses, a few armored vehicles and even a few old U.S military vehicles, including a tank. But the most feared weapon of the Texans is a bomb known as the “Emperor’s Scourge”.
These bombs were found when Texan explorer teams came across a warehouse in Alberkerkie. One of these bombs were used in the Texan invasion of Louisiana. It was detonated by a strike team in the capital of Orleans. The bomb leveled the greater part of the city, destroying the Louisianan government and winning the war for Texas. It has been said that when people go and venture out into the ruins of the city, they come back with incurable diseases, as was the wrath of the Emperors Scourge.
The citizens of the Empire worship the Emperor, as he is considered to be the strongest individual in the country. They offer sacrifices to him to keep is power strong. If there is no emperor, it is believed that the people in the country would lose their sentience and revert to a feral state. The Emperor is not a hereditary role, the holder of the title is chosen from a thousand boys and girls, who face daunting trials and are pitted against one another until only one survives. That person will become the next emperor.
Currently, the Empire is preparing expeditionary forces to be sent to the North, West and South, and they are preparing an army to go cross the Mississippi and invade the land in the area. However, it has been rumored that there is a cult operating in the shadow of the empire that plans to kill the Emperor and his heir. This puts the empire at a phase of high alert.
The men of the plains
In the great expanse of the American plains, loose bands of nations and tribes form, guarding cities or carrying them around. North of the Texan Empire, the Riders of Kansas dwell in the plains. They guard the cities of Wichita and Kansas from the raiders of the plains, and go ride their horses and automobiles to drive the raiders out of their land. Both them and the raiders worship Medria, the corn goddess, who has planted the seemingly infinite resource of Maize in the land. Kansas is just one of these regions.
All of these gods (except the Idols of Rushmore) are believed to be united under a council. One former member of this council of Rajmacka, the lord of the Mountains, was kicked out. His followers began to disbelieve in the other gods, putting the Mountain god as the one god. Back on the mortal realm, a group of leaders from all the regions decided to excommunicate the followers of the Mountains, and they were cast aside. To this day, the people of the plains stay away from the mountains, fearful of the heretics.
To the East of the plains, in the remnants of Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri, a resistance group known as the Front Free Mind operates. They try and fight the Combine of Chicago by sabotaging expeditions and attacking convoys. They are trained in the art of suicide, as the Combine can easily brainwash them if they are caught. Due to this, the Combine does not expand in that direction, and only fortifies it. Very recently, the Front captured the city of Des Moine from the Combine, and forces are being sent to destroy them.
The Mountains and the Northwest
The people of the Mountains had not forgotten the betrayal the plains people have done. In the area that used to be known as the Colorado Front Range, the worshipers of the mountains dwell. They proclaim the great mountains as the one god of the Americans, and the people of the plains disgrace them for this. However, the people of Colorado decided to expand their religion, to perform a crusade in the Rockies.
The Church of the Mountain now comprises of many nations, and encompasses an area from Arizona and New Mexico to the cold lands of the Yukon. The most sacred place in the religion is the Valley of Stone, located in Northern Arizona. Here, hundreds of worshipers pray to the mountains and the valley, as the mountains forged the sky and the land for the people to live.
The first followers of the church were based in the city of Denver. They soon became a part of the religion of the plains, until abandoning them to go worship the mountains alone. By this point, Denver had expanded North and South, controlling the cities of Fort Collins, Colorado Springs and Pueblo. Denver, now known as the Order of Colorado, then began to spread the religion.
To the south of Colorado lies the Mandate of Carson, a small yet thriving country in Northern New Mexico. They have heard reports of large armies to the south, and are thus fortifying their country to protect against them.
To the East of Carson there are two countries holding sacred places to the church. One of them is the Order of the Arch mountains, and the other is the Dominion of the Stone Valley. Both of these nations receive pilgrims from all over the Rockies due to their unique mountains.
In the lands of Utah to the north, several small nations dwell, offering prayers in the massive churches built by the old civilization to the mountains. To the north, mountain worshiping tribes battle the Montanans and the people of Wyoming for rule over the mountains, and there are hundreds of tribes and city states to the north in Idaho and Columbia.
The religion controls more land than any other in North America, although a fairly small population and a lack of unity.
In the region once called Cascadia, there is a unique group of people. The Cascadians reject all forms of human development and thought and essentially live like animals. They are basically anarcho-primitivists, and they believe that the “ways of the old” lead to the destruction of humanity, which is in part true.
They follow no religion, instead pondering over their creator and purpose and only use basic tools to hunt and gather. Their way of life is under threat, though as the Church of the Rockies is moving in to convert them and a powerful civilization is located just to the South.
The Lords of California
Two hundred years ago, the many, many warring tribes and nations of California have halted their war and began to form a centralized government. This was known as the Californian Grand Assembly, and it is headquartered in the largest city and most powerful political entity, the March of Los Angeles.
Every month, delegates from all over the empire gather under the mountain of Hollywood to discuss matters about preserving the stability of the country and propagating it's expansion. However, there are high tensions within the empire, and states often war against one another for control over resources, people, land or to settle family feuds and disputes. These disputed are usually taken very lightly, and the Assembly does not have it's own army to enforce peace so more bloodshed occurs. Many of the states are put into complex webs of alliances so there is a possibility of a massive war breaking out.
Some of the most powerful states include:
The two main alliances in California are the Californian Prosperity Council (CPC) based in the city of Anaheim, Los Angeles and the Phoenix-San Francisco Association (PSFA) with rotating capitals in Phoenix and San Francisco, although they are lead by San Diego. The two countries have forced California into a tight cold war, with the possibility of it erupting at any given moment.
California has a total of three languages spoken: North Californian, Californian and Sonoran. North Californian is spoken in the North and the bay area, down to the city state of Santa Barbara. It is very similar to Western English. Californian is a mix of English and Spanish, and it is spoken in Los Angeles, San Diego, the Arizonan Countries and many others. Sonoran is a dialect of Spanish spoken in Baja California and Sonora. It is slowly merging into the Californian language.
Religion does not play a big part in California, although they follow a religion somewhat similar to Buddhism, where no god is worshiped and people emphasize balance between the states and people. There is a caste system enforced in some of the smaller countries though.
So that was my coverage of an Alternate post apocalyptic North America. I hope you enjoyed this and I hope to continue to make these stories later on into the future.
submitted by NizamNizamNizam to FantasyWorldbuilding [link] [comments]


2019.09.29 19:20 NizamNizamNizam Post Apocalyptic United States Lore

So, a couple months ago I decided to go create a Post-Apocalyptic scenario. I never really got around to completing anything more than the continental U.S and Subarctic Canada, but I thought that it was worth a post here. This is my first post on this sub and I hope to continue this story soon. (FYI several of the toponym misspellings are intentional, they were intended to convey the change in language dialects.)
The Empire and its servants
In the heartland of the former U.S, in the modern day east coast, there lies a powerful, theocratic nation worshiping their ancestors.
The nation is known as the Holy Empire of America.
It was founded in the holy city of Washington D.C, where the local warlords have discovered an A.I in the U.S capitol building composed of digital uploads from many later U.S presidents and politicians. The warlords began to worship the A.I as a god, for its superior knowledge on governing and war. The A.I was overused in the early days of the Empire, and thus broke down. Now, it can only be used when the Empire gathers as many sources of energy and charges up the servers where it is located. This process can take up to fifty years, and therefore, the A.I is only used in times of extreme need.
During the early days of the Empire, around three hundred years from now, it spread, conquering many warlords and tribes in the east of the U.S. It has discovered an ancient system of roads stretching to infinity, known as the interstate. When they stumbled upon the ruins of the city of New York, the Empire accepted that there was a civilization before them that was greater than any other. They began to worship the civilization as another god, eventually realizing that the civilization created the A.I and the Interstate, as well of the giant spikes of steel with massive caves inside in the city of New York.
The empire has discovered how to utilize the automobile, a vehicle used by the old civilization that could cross the Interstate at lightning speed. However, many of them have broken down, and the empire has lost the technology to build them.
The Holy Empire has a governing structure similar to a mix of feudal and republican systems. At the top, there is the Emperor, a descendant of the warlord that ruled over the holy city. Below him, there are the Lords of Governance. They rule the 8 states of the empire: Rochastar, Great York, Jersiyia, Filidelfia, Pitisburg, Marylnd and Virjinya. They are elected by the nobles of each state, who rule small sections of lands populated by the citizens, who have little rights and are generally poor.
The Official Religion is the Dictate of the Americans, which worships the former U.S government and population, and this religion is strictly enforced, with non-believers executed for heresy. The religion states that the Americans were the creators of the world, and they ruled it in a utopian, technologically advanced society. But beings known as the “Rushians” grew greedy of this power, and they obliterated the Americans. Many of the warlords around the empire are believed to be demon servants of the Rushians.
The only language spoken in the area the Tongue of America, and the Empire is feared across the East for its size and power.
Some nations have decided to embrace the tyranny of America in the region, such as the technocracy of Boston. This state is ruled by intelligent and knowledgeable people, whose ranks are determined based on a test taken at the age of twenty. The highest scorers become leaders of the nation, while the lowest become workers or servants.
The main goal of the nation is to recover technology from the past, including:
The technocracy’s capital is Boston, a city located near sacred “Universe Cities”, massive archives containing ancient knowledge. The country is more religiously tolerant than the American Empire, which raises doubts in the rulers of them.
Two other countries are allied with the Empire. They are the Realm of Carolina to the south, which has a very strong belief in the religion of the empire, and the Kingdom of Wesvirjinya, a mountainous country that is quite isolated.
Currently, the Empire is fortifying its western borders due to warlord incursions, and it is sending out expeditions across the Great Waterfalls of Niagara into the land of Canada.
The turmoil in the North
The territories north of the Boston Technocracy are harsh to live and full with raiders and warlords. The enemies at land are not the biggest danger in the area though. On the coast of Maine and the Maritime Canadian states, there is a feared sea based empire, known as the Empire of the Atlantic.
The capital of this country is an abandoned U.S Navy Reagan Class Aircraft Carrier, a massive 3 mile (about 6km) long ship. The ship was originally called the USS Ronald Reagan, but is was renamed into the USS Charybdis. The ship are supplemented by 3 Tigris Class Carriers (1 mile/2 km long) and 5 Ford class aircraft carriers, as well as hundreds of smaller ships. These ships were constructed to defend the U.S coast from the United European Navy.
The Atlanteans are a sea faring, and they believe that they are superior to the people born on land. They control many settlements on the North American Coast, such as Portland, St. John and Moncton. The Empire is also in possession of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland, with sparse control over Labrador.
The leader of the Empire is known as the Admiral, and he leads the empire from the USS Charybdis. The former aircraft carriers no longer serve their purpose as plane carriers, rather they are converted into mobile cities. The official religion is the Cult of the Sea, where the Atlantic Ocean is considered to be the creator of land and all life. They are several rituals conducted to appease the ocean so that it does not turn on them.
The country has a weak army on land, but very impressive naval forces. The most feared and well known are the submarining families. The Empire is in possession of 20 large submarines, as well as 40 smaller ones. Each one of the subs are controlled by a family, who live and work on the ship. They are known to have sunk hundreds of non atlantean ships that breach their waters, including several ships from the Holy American Empire. The Atlanteans are also in possession of several battleships and cruisers, although many of these are converted into smaller floating cities.
However, one time the submariner families have failed to repel an invasion onto the sea. This invasion was carried out from a fleet originating from the St. Lawrence river. The fleet was controlled by the Quebecois Assembly, a powerful nation located in the area.
The Assembly is a bureaucratic government operated from the city of Quebec. They are unique in that they speak a completely different language than the other powers in the region, known as Fransian. The Quebecois have a religion similar to the Holy Americans (Although the two countries are not in contact due to Atlantean forces) in that they worship a long lost civilization. They worship their ancestors, who are known as the Francians, who have come to the world from the sea and gave birth to their civilization.
It has been the goal of the Quebecois to go cross the seas and reunite with the Francians. However many of these efforts have been in vain due to the Atlantean control over the Gulf of St. Lawrence. However, around 10 years before the current date, a large Quebecois fleet managed to breach the Atlantean blockade and sail into the ocean, as the Atlanteans were fighting a war against the Americans. The fleet has never returned, so the Assembly concluded that they reached Francia and the expedition was a success. A new, much larger fleet is being prepared down the river at the city of Montreal, to go send as many people to the old world as possible.
Smaller nations in the region include the Duchy of Toronto, a small, peaceful monarchy eching out a small existence by defending the city against raiders and the Tribes of the Acadia, small, shamanistic tribes inhabiting New Hampshire, Vermont, Inland Maine and Acadia, trying to survive against the powers in the region.
The Barrier and the threat.
East of the Holy American Empire lies the Land of Ohio. This is ruled by some of the strongest warlords in the continent, and they are a barrier for the expansion of the Holy Empire. At one point in time an American crusade managed to push all the way back to the city of Columbus, but they were repelled by the Ohioans. The greatest warlord in the regions, the great Robert Midleton of Toledo, managed to unite the entire country, as well as capturing Fort Wayne from the equally brutal Indiana warlords and even the city of Pitisburg from the Americans. However, he passed away, leaving his sons to fight over the remnants of the empire.
To the North of Ohio, lies the realm of Mishigan. This place is mainly uninhabited, having only a couple small city states such as Flint, Livonia and Great Rapids. However, one on the city states sticks out. It is the March of Detroit, and it possesses some of the rarest and most powerful technology in the entire world. It has massive factories, which are mainly uninhabited as the leaders are more worried about warlord intrusions, which produce many long lost relics such as Automobiles and other vehicles. If this city could come under control of the Americans or a far worse empire to the west, the results would be catastrophic.
The rest of Mishigan and the land of Indiana to the west are also inhabited by warlords, which both have the capability to storm armies coming from large empires. This is good, because the Northwest of Indiana is controlled by one of the most terrifying states to ever exist.
The Combine of Chicago. During the years prior to World War 3, scientists at the city developed a sentient A.I. They realized it's potential to destroy the human race so they shut it down immediately. Many years after the apocalypse, a lone raider stumbled upon the A.I when searching through the city. The A.I commanded “Give me knowledge and give me power”. The man, terrified at its ability to speak, brought it some books and power cells. The Artificial Intelligence then proceeded to brainwash the man into believing that it is a god and he need to bring it more resources and people. Soon, the entire city was indoctrinated and the Combine was formed. At the current date the Combine controls all of Illinois and Wisconsin, the twin cities of Minnesota, Western Iowa and Missouri and is proceeding to travel down the Mississippi river, indoctrinating settlements in the region. Soon, they will reach the Principality of Memphis, a fairly powerful nation with a good economy and industry.
Citizens of the combine are completely indoctrinated into believing that their A.I leader is their god and they must bring him sources of knowledge to go and make it smarter. The entire population of some Chicago neighborhoods are forced to work in power plants, feeding the machine with energy. The A.I is not connected to the internet, but if it was, the world would be doomed, as it’s superior information processing abilities would allow it to gain unlimited knowledge.
The Combine is only a couple weeks away from calculating the algorithmic pattern that the warlords to the East follow. When the calculation finishes, there is a very, very high chance that the Combine will successfully destroy all the warlords in the region, bringing it into contact with the Holy American Empire, which would result in a war of catastrophic scale.
South of the warlords and the Combine lies the two Kingdoms of Kentucky and Tennesie. These kingdoms occupy only a small part of the former U.S states, yet they are strong and powerful together. They are in contact with Memphis and have friendly relations with them, and there are negotiations commencing about plans to turn Memphis into a third kingdom. They are also in contact with another nation directly to the south.
Warriors of the South
Nearby the Realm of Carolina, there is a brutal group of warriors known as the Phoenix legion. The legion is headquartered in the city of Atlanta, and they stage brutal pillaging campaigns against their three neighbors.They are ruled by a figure known as the Blood Knight, who is the greatest warrior among them.
The defining trait of the Legion would be their arenas. They send prisoners of war as well as criminals to go fight in their massive arenas. The largest and most feared of them is the Crystal Stadium (once known as the Benz Stadium), and it also serves as the palace of the Blood Knight. The crown of the Legion can be challenged by a duel in the Crystal Stadium, and the winner would be crowned the title of the new Blood Knight. This title can only be challenged by soldiers in the Phoenix legion.
The soldiers of the legion worship the Phoenix, said to be a massive bird made of fire. The Phoenix is currently in sleep, and it will reawaken when the Legion manages to collect enough blood from the arenas. Once the Phoenix reawakens, it will lead the armies of the Legion to conquer the entire world.
Around the coastal regions of the region, a nation known as the Stellar Order of Florida dominates. It's capital is located in Orlando, in a massive temple city believed to have been constructed by Alien civilizations, due to many mysterious structured that seem to serve no purpose or buildings with very strange architectural styles.
Their religion is heavily based on astrology, and they personify the objects in the sky as the Aliens who built many ancient structures. During the night, many stellar beings are active, including Moone, the guardian of the night. However, during the day, they are all burned away by a massive star god known as the Sonne. The Sonne is so powerful that all the other stars fade out into a field of blue, except Moone, which fights the Sonne in order to bring the stars back. Moone eventually wins and the stars return, but the Sonne reawakens and drives them out again. The country antagonizes the Sonne as it is known to burn the skin of their people, giving them a disease known as the solar rot (Cancer).
Florida has a massive military, known as the Legion of Moone, who defend against the Phoenix legion, believing them to be cultists of the Sonne. The army has conquered the cities of Jacksonville, Tallahassee and Savannah from the legion. The Nation also has a strong navy, headquartered at the sinking city of Miami. The navy has colonized many islands to the Southeast of Florida, and they are sending expeditions into a large on the south of the Peninsula.
There are actually four languages spoken in the country, the Tongue of the Land (Southern English), the Tongue of the Beach (Northern English), the Tongue of the Sea (Spanish) and the Tongue of Island (Bahamian Creole). Despite this, the country is united against the struggles of the world and the fight against the Sonne.
Despite their religious differences, Florida is allied with the Dixie Confederacy to the Northwest. This is a fairly strong country which is a loose confederation of towns and cities in the regions of Alabama and Mississippi. Notable members include Jakson, Birmingam, Mobiel and Mongomery.
The country keeps itself together by sending diplomats and traders all over the nation. They have a fairly strong military, which is an absolute necessity considering what lies to the West and East of the nation. They do not have a very strong economy, and many of their citizens lie in poverty. This has resulted in the formation of a feudal system similar to the medieval ages. The country has no capital, as the individual towns govern themselves well enough.
Their religion believes that there must be a balance between dark and light. It is reflected in their songs, poetry and even the skin color of their people. They are in contact with the two kingdoms to the North, Memphis and Florida. They are currently fighting against the Phoenix Legion, and they have a fortified border at the Mississippi river to the West. This is to protect against one of the biggest threats to the entire region.
The Greatest of the Warriors
Louisiana. Arkansas. Oklahoma. New Mexico. Not one of these former states enjoy full independence and freedom. They are all consumed by one of the greatest powers on the continent. The Empire of Texas.
The emperor rules the empire from the city of Austin. The millions of citizens from across the empire and its vassals pray to him as he is considered to be the patron god of the country. The country speaks Texan, a creole of English and Spanish although Southern English is spoken commonly in the Eastern areas of the empire.
Texas is composed of a large empire, with a couple vassal states, them being Alberkerkie, Arkansas, Louisiana and Hurarez city. It also has a nearly intact interstate system and a large amount of Automobiles to traverse it, allowing for fast travel through the empire. The Texan scientists are some of the best in the land, able to recover lost knowledge from before the fall of the old civilization, who Texans consider as the time when the Emperor ruled all.
The Empire has one of the strongest military forces in the continent, although they are spread very thinly across the country. The military is composed of many cars, buses, a few armored vehicles and even a few old U.S military vehicles, including a tank. But the most feared weapon of the Texans is a bomb known as the “Emperor’s Scourge”.
These bombs were found when Texan explorer teams came across a warehouse in Alberkerkie. One of these bombs were used in the Texan invasion of Louisiana. It was detonated by a strike team in the capital of Orleans. The bomb leveled the greater part of the city, destroying the Louisianan government and winning the war for Texas. It has been said that when people go and venture out into the ruins of the city, they come back with incurable diseases, as was the wrath of the Emperors Scourge.
The citizens of the Empire worship the Emperor, as he is considered to be the strongest individual in the country. They offer sacrifices to him to keep is power strong. If there is no emperor, it is believed that the people in the country would lose their sentience and revert to a feral state. The Emperor is not a hereditary role, the holder of the title is chosen from a thousand boys and girls, who face daunting trials and are pitted against one another until only one survives. That person will become the next emperor.
Currently, the Empire is preparing expeditionary forces to be sent to the North, West and South, and they are preparing an army to go cross the Mississippi and invade the land in the area. However, it has been rumored that there is a cult operating in the shadow of the empire that plans to kill the Emperor and his heir. This puts the empire at a phase of high alert.
The men of the plains
In the great expanse of the American plains, loose bands of nations and tribes form, guarding cities or carrying them around. North of the Texan Empire, the Riders of Kansas dwell in the plains. They guard the cities of Wichita and Kansas from the raiders of the plains, and go ride their horses and automobiles to drive the raiders out of their land. Both them and the raiders worship Medria, the corn goddess, who has planted the seemingly infinite resource of Maize in the land. Kansas is just one of these regions.
All of these gods (except the Idols of Rushmore) are believed to be united under a council. One former member of this council of Rajmacka, the lord of the Mountains, was kicked out. His followers began to disbelieve in the other gods, putting the Mountain god as the one god. Back on the mortal realm, a group of leaders from all the regions decided to excommunicate the followers of the Mountains, and they were cast aside. To this day, the people of the plains stay away from the mountains, fearful of the heretics.
To the East of the plains, in the remnants of Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri, a resistance group known as the Front Free Mind operates. They try and fight the Combine of Chicago by sabotaging expeditions and attacking convoys. They are trained in the art of suicide, as the Combine can easily brainwash them if they are caught. Due to this, the Combine does not expand in that direction, and only fortifies it. Very recently, the Front captured the city of Des Moine from the Combine, and forces are being sent to destroy them.
The Mountains and the Northwest
The people of the Mountains had not forgotten the betrayal the plains people have done. In the area that used to be known as the Colorado Front Range, the worshipers of the mountains dwell. They proclaim the great mountains as the one god of the Americans, and the people of the plains disgrace them for this. However, the people of Colorado decided to expand their religion, to perform a crusade in the Rockies.
The Church of the Mountain now comprises of many nations, and encompasses an area from Arizona and New Mexico to the cold lands of the Yukon. The most sacred place in the religion is the Valley of Stone, located in Northern Arizona. Here, hundreds of worshipers pray to the mountains and the valley, as the mountains forged the sky and the land for the people to live.
The first followers of the church were based in the city of Denver. They soon became a part of the religion of the plains, until abandoning them to go worship the mountains alone. By this point, Denver had expanded North and South, controlling the cities of Fort Collins, Colorado Springs and Pueblo. Denver, now known as the Order of Colorado, then began to spread the religion.
To the south of Colorado lies the Mandate of Carson, a small yet thriving country in Northern New Mexico. They have heard reports of large armies to the south, and are thus fortifying their country to protect against them.
To the East of Carson there are two countries holding sacred places to the church. One of them is the Order of the Arch mountains, and the other is the Dominion of the Stone Valley. Both of these nations receive pilgrims from all over the Rockies due to their unique mountains.
In the lands of Utah to the north, several small nations dwell, offering prayers in the massive churches built by the old civilization to the mountains. To the north, mountain worshiping tribes battle the Montanans and the people of Wyoming for rule over the mountains, and there are hundreds of tribes and city states to the north in Idaho and Columbia.
The religion controls more land than any other in North America, although a fairly small population and a lack of unity.
In the region once called Cascadia, there is a unique group of people. The Cascadians reject all forms of human development and thought and essentially live like animals. They are basically anarcho-primitivists, and they believe that the “ways of the old” lead to the destruction of humanity, which is in part true.
They follow no religion, instead pondering over their creator and purpose and only use basic tools to hunt and gather. Their way of life is under threat, though as the Church of the Rockies is moving in to convert them and a powerful civilization is located just to the South.
The Lords of California
Two hundred years ago, the many, many warring tribes and nations of California have halted their war and began to form a centralized government. This was known as the Californian Grand Assembly, and it is headquartered in the largest city and most powerful political entity, the March of Los Angeles.
Every month, delegates from all over the empire gather under the mountain of Hollywood to discuss matters about preserving the stability of the country and propagating it's expansion. However, there are high tensions within the empire, and states often war against one another for control over resources, people, land or to settle family feuds and disputes. These disputed are usually taken very lightly, and the Assembly does not have it's own army to enforce peace so more bloodshed occurs. Many of the states are put into complex webs of alliances so there is a possibility of a massive war breaking out.
Some of the most powerful states include:
The two main alliances in California are the Californian Prosperity Council (CPC) based in the city of Anaheim, Los Angeles and the Phoenix-San Francisco Association (PSFA) with rotating capitals in Phoenix and San Francisco, although they are lead by San Diego. The two countries have forced California into a tight cold war, with the possibility of it erupting at any given moment.
California has a total of three languages spoken: North Californian, Californian and Sonoran. North Californian is spoken in the North and the bay area, down to the city state of Santa Barbara. It is very similar to Western English. Californian is a mix of English and Spanish, and it is spoken in Los Angeles, San Diego, the Arizonan Countries and many others. Sonoran is a dialect of Spanish spoken in Baja California and Sonora. It is slowly merging into the Californian language.
Religion does not play a big part in California, although they follow a religion somewhat similar to Buddhism, where no god is worshiped and people emphasize balance between the states and people. There is a caste system enforced in some of the smaller countries though.

So that was my coverage of an Alternate post apocalyptic North America. I hope you enjoyed this and I hope to continue to make these stories later on into the future.
submitted by NizamNizamNizam to worldbuilding [link] [comments]


2019.09.29 12:04 fail-deadly- Neo-Transcendentalism and the Needs of the Many

Part I.
TLDR: The Federation has pursued colonial policies based on convenience that have caused many problems for both the UFP and its colonists. Star Trek writers have done the same thing with the same result.
This post is a Watsonian investigation into the TNG episode "Up the Long Ladder." It is not about the episode's narrative failures. Nor is this about the episode's offensive, stereotypical portrayal of the Irish (or possibly travelers/Roma), nor is it about Riker and Pulaski casually murdering clones. Nor is it about the episode's forced resolution. This is about colonization in Star Trek from Khan to the Maquis, and in universe issues surrounding colonization. So, brace yourself, this will be a long journey.
The Doylist explanation for “Up the Long Ladder,” is the episode is a fun, low stakes mystery for the crew to solve, while relying on ethnic stereotypes to inject “comedy” into a serious consideration of the ethics of cloning. The moral of the story is that cloning that requires coercion or non-consensual medical experimentation is bad possibly evil. Additionally, it may have also been in support of abortion, especially in cases of rape if we pull back a few layers of narrative obfuscation. However, close to zero thought was put into the logistics or implications of colonial policy that could result in the situation encountered in the episode. Melinda Snodgrass wrote this episode and her intention was for this to be an examination of American immigration policy.
The result of the episode is that in universe the Federation has a failed colonial policy that does little to nothing to account for its colonies and these policies prevents the Federation from exploiting class M planets. This had tragic consequences that lead to Spock’s death by an individual deeply wronged by the Federation’s ad hoc colonial policies. Out of Universe, the writers as of the TNG era have no coherent narrative policy for colonial world building either, so preposterous or even impossible situations can easily arise, as demonstrated by what some considers one of the worst episodes of the TNG era.
As background, the episode starts in 2365 with Captain Picard receiving a mission from Admiral Moore wanting him to check out a distress beacon. Star Base Research at Star Base 73 took about a month to determine the incoming signal was a pre-federation distress call using a European Hegemony signal, with the signal originating in the Ficus sector. While Riker seemingly has no knowledge of the European Hegemony, it took him about a minute to guess it was a call for help, compared to hours for Star Fleet research. Picard chides Riker for his lack of knowledge about the history of Earth’s world government, and they conduct research. The pair determine that the signal was in general use from between 2123 and 2190; however, there were no recorded deep space launches from 2193-2190 destined for the Ficus sector and the Enterprise departs from Star Base 73 to investigate.
A Doylist interjection is that the first part of this mystery is set. Additionally, Worf collapses, as part of the C or D plot, and it will result in an opportunity to add to Worf’s characterization, as well as have Worf and Dr. Pulaski share a Klingon tea ceremony, that shifts the viewers perception of Klingons further from the warmongering, devious commies of the TOS era, to the noble Samurai warriors of the TNG era, as well as help build Dr. Pulaski’s characterization, especially when she administers herself an antidote to a toxic substance in the tea, so she can fully appreciate Worf’s culture (without dying).
During their journey Capt. Picard and Data discover the identity of the ship that colonized the Ficus sector and learn something about the colonists.
They learn the SS Mariposa is a DY-500 class ship and it transported colonists (and viewers will find out it was transporting the colonists to two settlements in one trip). Loaded November 27, 2123, with a strange aggregate of low tech and high tech supplies, it launched to the Ficus sector (Sectors 184/02-185/38), about 50 years after World War III, as well as about 45 years after the post atomic horror, and about 60 years after the first human implementation of warp drive. The SS Mariposa was also about 20 years before the first human warp 2 capable ship. Data theorizes that the low-tech supplies were because of Neo-Transcendentalism beliefs that arose after World War III. He states It was a movement founded by Liam Dieghan and encouraged people to live simpler lives in harmony with nature. Combined with other supplies, it seems this may have been a pragmatic redundancy for the colony in case the technology failed. Finally, the SS Mariposa was one of 12 missions over an 85-year period the computer associated with being in the vicinity of the Ficus sector, though the SS Mariposa was the only we know of that directly colonized the Ficus sector.
Here is a breakdown of those missions:
SS Hokule A DY 500 C 2102 Deep Space Exploration
VK Yuri Gagarin DY 732 2105 Colonization
SS Tomobiki RT 2203 2119 Deep Space Exploration
SS Seattle NAR18834 2120 Diplomatic mission to SR-47
HMS Lord Nelson DY 500 B 2120 Deep Space Exploration
SS Mariposa DY 500 2123 Colonization
HMS New Zealand DY 732 [N] 2135 Diplomatic mission to Aldebaran
SS Buckaroo Banzai BBI 993 2137 Mission to Planet 10 (Dim 8)
SS Urusei Yatsura DY 430 2146 Nebula Survey Project
VK Velikan DY 1200 2160 Stellar Chart Mapping
DEV Eagle Valley DY 950 2183 Colonization
SS Hatteras DY 245 2187 Deep Space Exploration
Out of these missions, only the last three missions occurred after the formation of the United Earth government in 2150. Only two occurred after the formation of the United Federation of Planets in 2161. Three more of the missions could have occurred under a mostly United Earth government that may have formed in 2030. The HMS New Zealand Diplomatic mission to Aldebaran is a very interesting piece of information since sources from Memory Alpha indicate Aldebaran is 68 light years from Earth. This most likely gives us some indication of the distance from Earth and location of the colonies in the Ficus sector. One other thing that sticks out is the SS Buckaroo Banzai is probably falsified paperwork filed on a ship, since the ship is apparently named after a movie. [Yes, I know out of universe it is a Doylist joke, same with the Aldebaran, or Alderaan as it appeared in the original broadcast of the episode, but there needs to be a Watsonian in universe explanation for the ship].
While Capt. Picard and Data did little to analyze this list of missions after determining the identity of the mystery ship, most likely because they would be entering the system soon enough, a more thorough look shows us there were five representative periods on this list. The first period was from 2102-2105 with the SS Hokule A and VK Yuri Gagarin. Ships in this era most likely had a warp one engines, which had a maximum speed less than warp two. Politically, this was either before or during the earliest part of the European Hegemony.
The next period was from 2119-2123 with SS Tomobiki, SS Seattle, HMS Lord Nelson, and SS Mariposa all operating in a very active period. We know the SS Mariposa mission ended in failure from the point of view of its backers on Earth. Ships in era were still limited to warp one engines, which had a maximum speed less than warp two. Politically, this is some of the prime years of the European Hegemony.
The next period starts twelve years later in 2135 with the HMS New Zealand and the SS Buckaroo Banzai, if it was a real mission and not a cover for criminal activity. Even at this late date ships were still limited to less than the warp 2 barrier. Politically, humanity is consolidating into the United Earth government, but it’s not quite there yet.
The next period is relatively short. It starts in 2146 with the SS Urusei Yatsura, a mere three years after the NX-Alpha broke the Warp 2 Barrier, one year after the NX-Delta achieved Warp 3 and five years before the NX Enterprise launched on its voyages and proving the Warp 5 engine. It was a time of enormous changes in technology, deep space knowledge and political organization on Earth. While the SS Urusei Yatsura, probably had a warp one engine, it may have been modified to allow it to go faster than warp two.
The last period started in 2160 and ran through 2187. Ships in this era, were much faster, had far better deep space charts, and were part of a far more powerful political organizations – both United Earth and the United Federation of planets. Still, it is easy to imagine that it took a long while to make integrate the different organizational cultures from the mostly peaceful unification of humanity and to start effectively utilizing new technologies in standard operating procedures. This is probably why it took until 2190 to phase out the European Hegemony distress signals.
During all this time there were only three colony ships launched in or around the Ficus sector, and from Earth’s perspective, at least one was a failure. The other two colonial missions were in vastly different time periods, so they were probably very different affairs. Examining what happened after the first colonization attempt, there are two diplomatic missions after the VK Yuri Gagarin left Earth in 2105. It is plausible to consider that colonization effort a success, and then relate one or both diplomatic missions to it. However, that leads to a very interesting problem. How did a ship launched in 2105, unable to hit warp 2, colonize a world 68 light years from Earth – Aldebaran – and do it in less than 15 years?
To arrive at the less than 15-year date, means that the SS Seattle’s diplomatic mission to SR-47 was related to the Gagarin’s colonization mission. This means the Gagarin would have needed to arrive at its colonial location in anywhere from 158-202 months at maximum from its departure. Since there are no other colonization attempts, except for the SS Mariposa, it’s quite plausible the diplomatic mission to Aldebaran was to the same, or a nearby location to SR-47. One possible scenario is the ship traveled at least Warp 1.6 using the TOS warp scale, or 4.1 times the speed of light, and maintained that speed for about 16.8 years, and it arrived on Aldebaran. If the ship is unable to maintain these high speeds for more than a decade at a time, and work out refueling, then this scenario doesn’t work. Less than Warp 1.59 (4.02 the speed of light), would not work either. Another scenario is that an earlier, or an unrecorded colonial effort, founded the Aldebaran colony, and that the diplomatic mission to SR-47 was unrelated to anything having to do with the Aldebaran colony. This is quite possible.
However, there is a third possible scenario.
Suppose the SS Hokule A and the VK Yuri Gagarin were both warp capable sleeper ships designed to travel slowly, but very efficiently to extremely distant locations. For this scenario, the ships would travel in bursts of cruising at warp 1.1-1.3 (1.33-2.2 times the speed of light), and periods of cruising at sub-light speeds to replenish anti-matter stores, etc. After departing Earth on 2105, sometime shortly before 2119, the Gagarin crew wakes, having arrived at their destination 68 light years from Earth in the Aldebaran system decades before their expected arrival date. They setup a subspace relay station (SR-47) to contact Earth, and the colonists begin preparations to colonize Aldebaran III. An organization or multiple-organizations on Earth receives a subspace message from SR-47, which includes the Gagarin’s flight path. They determine that the colony ship passed through an anomaly, which allowed it to instantly go from close to Earth and the Sol system to light years away, close to the Aldebaran system.
In early 2219, the SS Tomobiki speeds off to retrace the Gagarin’s flight path, and it finds the anomaly. It could be a temporary worm hole, or possibly a moving/non-static worm hole. It passes through and exits on the other side close to the Aldebaran system, which for our purposes could still be light years away. This spurs quite a bit of activity, with two more ships headed to deep space approximately a year later. These three missions are enough of a success, or not yet a failure, to spur another colonization attempt. That of the SS Mariposa.
The backers of the SS Mariposa put together two groups that presumably wanted to be far from the reach of Earth. One is members of the Neo-Transcendentalism movement. If you are desire to be little more than simple farmers and artisans, it is probably easier to do it on an unexplored lush planet rather than on the outskirts of Frankfurt or Paris. The other is a group of scientists that were able to create a fairly robust clone-based society, even after suffering a catastrophe to their colony ship on arrival but were unable to build a decent spacecraft centuries later. Granted, maybe all their warp engineers died, but there is another possible reason a group of scientists with biotech skills wanted to be far from Earth’s authority. They could have wanted to do research into transhumanist biology. Maybe they weren’t necessarily planning on creating augments, but they found the scientific restrictions to their biological research on Earth restrictive enough to found a colony well past the boundary of the human occupied sphere.
Both groups approach connected with an outfit touting two unclaimed worlds just waiting for colonists and after some preparations the groups board the SS Mariposa. They headed a few light years from Earth, passed through the anomaly, then proceeded in the opposite direction of the colony on Aldebaran. They departed and vanished after passing through the anomaly. The Tomobiki, Seattle and Lord Nelson either don’t return or report problems with the anomaly. It is used or there is one last attempt to use it around 2135, and after that it is either too unstable or has moved too much to be of use. It isn’t until warp 5 or better engines come online before another colonization attempt happens.
To support this scenario, the Ficus sector appears to be in the vicinity of sectors 184/02-185/38 and probably comprises that numbered portion of the sectors, according to the information displayed on Picard’s monitor. Now while there is not a truly accurate three-dimensional sector map of the galaxy that allows easy cross reference of the location of the Ficus sector; we can theorize about those sectors. The easiest way to handwave multiple maps we’ve seen from Star Trek is to consider there are multiple coordinate systems, that use multiple perspectives, 2D, 3D, planet based, star based etc. The Ficus sector is equal to sectors 184/02-185/38 and may be part of other designations depending on function of the map displayed and historical period individuals access that map.
The challenge is to have a world that is 68 light years from Earth and is also in the vicinity of sectors 184 and 185. There are several ways this is possible. Easiest is that sectors do not have a standard size, nor do they use any systematic, much less sequential naming schemes. Then, there it is, Ficus is right beside of Aldebaran or anywhere else the writers need it to be. However, there is a method to have standardized, systematic, sequential sectors that fit these criteria. Using standard 10 light year sectors and a 2D sequential spiral naming scheme, with Earth at the center of sector 001, it would place, a planet in sectors 184 and 185 between approximately 65-85 light years from Earth and a sector adjacent to those sectors anywhere from 60 to 70 light years from Earth. Imagine a square that is divided into 225 blocks or a 15x15 grid of squares. Each of these blocks are 10x10x10 light years (1000 cubic light years, or about 9.5 quadrillion cubic kilometers). At the very center of the square is grid 001. If we look at this square from above, and assign arbitrary compass direction (since these would not exist in space) then we have adjacent to 001 are 002 (N), 003 (NW), 004 (W), 005 (SW), 006 (S), 007 (SE), 008 (E) and 009 (NE). Seven blocks to the North is 170. Seven blocks to the East is 212. Seven blocks South is 198. Seven blocks to the West is grid square 184, with 185 being adjacent to it.
If Aldebaran is 68 light years from Earth (six sectors away) and adjacent to sectors 184/185, we could have it in sectors 133, 134, 135, 136, or 183 and it could be up to 20-30 light years from any planets in the Ficus sector.
Since Star Base 73 seems to be the nearest Federation outpost to the Ficus sector, means the sector has some relationship to Klingon space. This arises from the fact that the Enterprise met Worf’s adopted parents at Star Base 73 after the death of K'Ehleyr, during K'mpec’s succession crisis to drop off Alexander with Worf. It seems like it would be one of the closest Star Bases between Earth and Qo'noS, if only not to inconvenience Worf’s family. Also, since it is tense time and the Enterprise was involved in the crisis, a star base close to Klingon space makes sense to keep the Enterprise close to the action. It is like if somebody had to drive to Boston for a work-related conference then wanted to drive and meet family who lived in Washington D.C. and let a child spend some time at a grandparent’s house. A meeting location in New York, Atlantic City, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and even Pittsburgh, all makes sense. However, driving to Tucson, Arizona; Barstow California; Miami, Florida; Fargo, North Dakota or even worse, Aunu'u in American Samoa, etc. does not make sense. The implication is Star Base 73 is somewhere between Earth and Qo'noS, possibly close to the Klingon border, instead of the exact opposite end of Federation space compared to the Klingon Empire. Also, it looks like the Aldebaran system was part of the occupation that resulted from the Federation-Klingon War of 2256-2257, which would place a planet in a sector adjacent to the Ficus sector, within striking distance of Klingon forces.
This is important because of hostilities between the Federation and Klingon Empire over the years, makes it prudent for the Federation to patrol their territory in the vicinity of the Klingon Empire (again assuming Star Base 73 is somewhat close to the Klingon border). Maintaining vigilance requires some type of patrol or reconnaissance missions every so often, even in relatively safe but uninhabited areas like the Ficus sector. While both colonies may be completely inconsequential affairs, once in system a Federation ship should be able to pick up the Mariposa colony. Though obviously the ship needs to be closer than .5 light years to detect it. I make this point, because the Enterprise could not detect the Maraposa colony until it was much closer than that distance. Possibly as close as a few light hours away.
The fact that no Federation reconnaissance patrols encountered either colony in centuries coupled with no follow-on colonization attempts occurred on perfectly habitable worlds is very interesting.
Back on the Enterprise, once it arrives at the origin point of the beacon in the Ficus sector, they find a star, Bringloid, having severe flare activity. On Bringloid V, a class M planet, the Enterprise discovers the source of the distress beacon. What they find is a colony that has taken shelter in a cave 30 meters below the planet’s surface. Flares will touch the planet in hours, and Riker leads an away team to make contact. He finds 223 people in the cave, with two of the colonists pregnant and days from delivering their babies. In Riker’s assessment, the colonists are in “surprisingly good” condition.
So, my assumption is in the weeks (if the beacon was a subspace beacon), which I consider by far the most likely scenario, or years (if the beacon was a radio beacon) since the distress call went out, there has not been a major die off in the colony because of the flares. Those 200 people represent a snapshot in time of a somewhat stabile colony. Now there is one unlikely possibility that the colony has already suffered a large population reduction because the beacon used RF instead of subspace signals. The distress call Star Base 73 received is decades or centuries old, and it was either coincidence that there was severe solar activity when the Enterprise arrived, or the solar activity is intermittent so that it hasn’t killed all life on the planet already. If someone else wants to develop that theory, go ahead, but I am assuming the beacon is recent, and the solar flare activity seen in the episode is the same activity that activated the automated distress beacon.
Using the example of Pitcairn Island and the HMS Bounty mutineers as a possible model, an isolated colony, with little modern technology can grow rapidly (from 27 in 1790 to 194 in 1856) but it can also languish, considering that the population of Pitcairn Island is 50 as of 2018. This means there is the possibility of a mass population reduction in the past, but if it did occur, it is most likely to be a separate incident from the solar flares in the episode.
Sensors on the Enterprise detect no artificial power sources, though there is no explanation of what is powering the distress beacon, nor the equipment that detected the solar flares. Most likely it is either a very robust unobtanium battery/or some self-sufficient, stand alone, low power generator that would fall below the threshold of a general scan. This device may be connected to one of the satellites carried by the SS Mariposa and is how the colonists knew to take shelter. Immediately, Picard orders the evacuation of the colony
At this point, 223 people arrive on the Enterprise. They have goats, sheep, pigs, chickens, ducks, and cattle. This means that rustic life on Bringloid V was not only survivable for humans, but Earth animals could also survive with no terraforming or enclosed habitats. While the climate could have been harsh, it was not too extreme to result in a massive livestock die-off even with the colony only being able to rely on rudimentary tools and equipment when they arrived. The colonists also have what appears to be wood buckets with metal trim, wood barrels with metal trim, woven baskets, wood tool boxes, wooden animal cages, wooden furniture, leather bags, leather luggage, cast iron kettles, pots and cauldrons, wooden pallets, wooden animal stocks a metal flask, as well as a still for making alcohol. Additionally, colonists possess ceramic jugs, blankets and spinning wheels. They have at least one instrument that appears to be an accordion. Their favorite spirit seems to be whiskey, and the still they brought with them appears to be copper. They wear antiquated, but fairly elaborate clothes including hats, shawls, belts dresses, coats, scarves, shirts, pants with decorative buttons, vests, sandals, and undergarments. Many are clean shaven, have jewelry, and some of the dresses, shirts, jackets and scarves have colorful patterns. So, Bringloid V is a lush world, capable of supporting humans, human crops and human livestock with preindustrial equipment.
One of the colonists, Brenna Odell, wears multiple changes of clothes and her original outfit has very fine lace embroidery on her outer garment. There is a reason to take note of this. The colony appears to do well enough to engage in time consuming pursuits of vanity and leisure or is living off their founding bounty. The colonists either had to bring, manufacture, or trade for their possessions, and since their progenitors believed in a return to a simpler life, it is unlikely they brought excessive stores of goods in addition to the necessities needed to found a colony. So, trading or manufacturing their goods are more likely than living off huge stockpiles of founding goods, though heirlooms, and fastidious reuse of nearly everything are both quite likely. While these colonists are backwards in development compared to the Federation, it has been so long, that it is unlikely they represent the original Neo-Transcendentalism ethos, but they are most certainly an evolution of it.
Back on Earth, Neo-Transcendentalism seems to have dwindled into obscurity or died out altogether. However, it seems to have been very influential. Even Capt. Picard’s brother seems influenced by it to a certain degree, though I do not think Robert Picard was a Neo-Transcendentalist. However, he certainly favors a fairly simple and low tech approach to life.
Bringloid is most likely in Federation space, and since Star Fleet has no idea about the colony, trade, at least with Federation sanctioned sources is unlikely, because it seems like a trader would have reported the colony to Federation authorities. Even if there was not an official report, it seems that at least the knowledge would somehow be in the Federation information network for Data to discover. For example if a random ship delivered a ton of chicken feed to Bringloid V, even if this did not result in report to the UPF concerning colonial activities, the fact that a manifest or some type of paperwork should be in Federation systems means that the computer could query it, and between the Star Base Research staff and the Enterprise, if there was a record of trade in the Ficus system it should have shown up. The lack of records indicates a complete lack of trade with any officially sanctioned trade organization in the Federation.
There is another thing to consider. With such a small population, why would a Ferengi ship (or a black-market federation ship or other commercial non-federation species, or criminal organization) visit them, especially if they are not on record as existing? What is the likelihood that the descendants of an obscure and little followed philosophy, who practice a comparatively very backward form of life to other members of the Alpha and Beta quadrants have a trade good that will bring the Ferengi a profit, but not be worth the Ferengi taking the item with force from a few defenseless humans who lack even the protection of Federation citizenship, much less phasers and shields? Very unlikely because of the rules of acquisition. The Bringloid, Danilo Odell, seems to recognize the strength in Worf and appears intimidated by him, but I would not say there is some type of recognition of Worf being a Klingon. This means it’s unlikely they’ve traded with the UPF, the Ferengi, or Klingons, or advanced species since the Bringloid have no clue what a replicator is or what it’s capable of doing.
So, since stockpiles and trade are out, it follows that the few hundred colonists most likely have numerous artisans and crafts people. The colony’s possession indicates the colony has miners, lumberjacks, coopers, seamstresses, tailors, ranchers, farmers, brewers, carpenters, potters, jewelers, and many other professions in their midst, to supplement their colony’s original supplies. Since the colony is so small, their efforts must be relatively easy. Before the solar flares, life on Bringloid must have been somewhat comfortable with their level of technology, especially since individuals like Danilo, seemingly quite able to find time to drink and avoid work. Additionally, there are no complaints to either Captain Picard or Riker that the people are sick and starving. It seems like they were doing fine. So, it follows that wood, metal, water, air, etc. are abundant and easy to extract because a small, technologically backwards colony has done this without too much hardship, as well as some leisure.
Why would a lush world, relatively close to Federation colonies and installations barely warrant a patrol? Did Federation scientist discover the potential for devastating solar activity, or is there another reason?
Danilo Odell, a key leader of the Bringloid colony, mentions another colony, and using established star charts, Picard investigates a charted class M planet half a light year away, where a second colony, the Mariposa colony, does indeed exist. An accident killed most of the colonists upon arrival to the second world, and five individuals, including the captain of the ship created a clone society with the technology on the ship. There is no mention at the size of the Mariposa colony, though it appears to be somewhat technologically advanced, and it has at least more than one city. It certainly possesses better technology than Earth in the late twentieth century. In fact, the planet may have initiated contact with the Enterprise as the ship drew close to the planet, which would indicate the ability to track a starship in real time. Though it is equally likely that their hail may be a delayed response to an offscreen hail from the Enterprise.
The Mariposa colony does seem to lack any warp capable ships or subspace communication devices. In fact since the clones suffer from an incurable side effect of cloning – replicative fading where clones become less viable with each successive generation – and they have reason to suspect another colony exists just half a light year away it is unlikely the Mariposa colony even possesses ships with impulse engines. While the Mariposa colony has reason to believe Earth may have suffered a catastrophe, and there is no reason to return to Earth, the Mariposa crew knows several colonists founded the Bringloid colony and were alive when the Mariposa departed for its second location. So, the clones of five scientists, or four scientists and a ship’s captain, should know that it’s possible for the genetic material they need to temporarily or possibly even permanently solve their condition, exists relatively close by in galactic terms. Half a light year away is colony full of humans, and at impulse that is only a four-year round trip. At warp one it is a one-year round trip, and at warp two (TNG not TOS scale) it is a 36 day round trip. Since the Mariposa colony neither performed this mission, nor inquired about the Bringloid colony, it is evidence the Mariposa colony does not have subspace communication systems, since they did not receive the distress call, nor ships capable of exploring outside of their system. It also indicates that Mariposa colony has not engaged in off planet trade, which strengthens the case that Brigloid has not engaged in any off-world trade either. If the Ferengi aren’t trading with the Mariposa colony, then why would they trade with Bringloid V?
While Riker and Pulaski are horrified to be cloned against their will (which may be an allegory for being raped and carrying a child), it is apparently necessary in the minds of the Mariposan colonists. They would risk a diplomatic incident with a ship that greatly outmatches their abilities on first contact. Since they seem rational and even asked first, but were refused, their actions must have been the work of desperate people trying to survive. Pulaski states, though since she is attempting to support Capt. Picard’s coercive policy of forced colonial integration her statement is suspect, that the Mariposan colony only has 50 years left before it’s cities are empty. She also states they have three generation at most. This means that certainly any hybrid capable species, or any unscrupulous traders willing to provide human cell lines to the Mariposa colony had not visited Mariposa. Otherwise, we’d see more than five distinct individual types. Additionally, if Mariposa was actively trading with other species who possessed knowledge of Earth, the Prime Minister of Mariposa would not have expressed surprise that Earth is intact and thriving.
This bring us to the most important reason to examine this episode. Why have two Class M planets settled by Earth in the distant past remained outside of Federation jurisdiction or even Federation knowledge for more than 240 years? While Picard said the colonies were lost because of bureaucratic incompetence, is the Federation’s colonial bureaucracy so bad that hundreds of years later it has not corrected the mistakes made by a pre-Federation world government predecessor? Even if there is no record of either of these early colonies, in the centuries since their founding has Earth’s government really had no desire to settle either planet? If it is that easy for lost colonies to exist then it can help us determine the policies of the UFP, as well as some demographic characteristics of the Federation.
For the original colonization attempt, we're looking at the SS Mariposa having a max speed of probably between one (warp 1) and six (warp 1.817 TOS scale) times the speed of light (speed estimations are approximations). Cruising speed for an old freighter like the SS Mariposa, may be much slower, like somewhere in the warp 1 (equal to the speed of light) to warp 1.4 (about 2.75 times the speed of light) range. The main problem is that warp speeds are not linear. A ship traveling at warp eight (using TNG warp speeds) is not going four times faster than a ship traveling at warp two. The warp eight ship is travelling more than 100 times faster than the warp 2 ship. Even a Miranda class piddling around at warp five is going almost six times faster than a ship travelling at warp three on the TNG scale. An early colony ship with a maximum sustained speed of warp 1.5 compared to the Enterprise-D’s maximum sustained speed of warp 9.2 is like comparing a person walking to a supersonic jet aircraft going just a bit over Mach 2. A five-year round-trip colonization mission for a ship with a cruising speed of warp 1.5 would target a destination that would be approximately 9 light years from Earth thirty months into the voyage, while a ten-year round-trip colonization mission for a ship with a cruising speed of warp 1.8 would be about 30 light years. The Enterprise can cover that same distance in about 2 days (9 light years at warp 9.2) to about a month (30 light years at warp 6).
For the SS Mariposa to colonize anything over five years one-way distance is suspect. Anything over 10 years one-way distance seems nearly impossible, especially with the livestock. If the SS Mariposa is limited to less than warp 1.5, cruising speed, it seems like it would need to be a cryogenic colonization attempt. However, I question the logistics of putting cattle, goats, chickens, etc. in cryosleep. Then would a group that is looking to simplify their lives and get back to nature, want to be in cryosleep and put their livestock in cryosleep?
The ship is a more advanced version of the class Khan used to escape Earth. It may carry more, possibly significantly more than the Botany Bay, considering the Neo-Transcendentalists brought livestock with them. However, the Botany Bay was not warp capable, and ships like the SS Mariposa would have less warp capabilities than military ships of the era of the early 22nd century. So, if there is not a worm hole or some type of anomaly to use, the SS Mariposa, either needed to be a sleeper ship that took decades or longer to make it to the Ficus sector, or there are two class M worlds that are a two day trip from Earth in 2365 that nobody has checked out. If it was a sleeper ship, why would the colonists, and mission be so unusual?
The most plausible scenario seems to be the third scenario with the anomaly. So, this explains why Earth’s colonial bureaucrats weren’t sending out rescue team for the SS Mariposa. It entered an anomaly then disappeared. Case closed. However, Capt. Picard with no Federation oversight decides to forcibly integrate two societies that are nothing alike, for the sake of convenience, since they are colonists. The Bringloid and Mariposa colonies had extremely different founding ethos’s, vastly divergent colonial experiences, as well as no contact for centuries. This shows human colonists had little respect, and basically no agency, even if in theory they had due process and statutory protection of their rights.
The most surprising aspect of the whole incident is the utter lack of empathy for the colonists demonstrated by the crew of the Enterprise. In fact, Picard showed more empathy for the Borg, letting Third of Five, or Hugh, reintegrate into Borg society than he did for the refugees of Bringloid or the desperate remnants of the Mariposa colony. By having the Enterprise determine what would be best for a group of backward colonists, and then force a seemingly simple solution on disparate ethnic groups, he showed the same arrogance that other Imperial powers have demonstrated in the past. Picard’s solution is the moral equivalent of the Sykes-Picot Agreement that divided much of the Middle East between France and Britain after World War I.
submitted by fail-deadly- to DaystromInstitute [link] [comments]


2019.07.14 01:38 GABE_EDD [Arizona] Car Title & Towing Nightmare

Back in October 2018, I bought a car off a guy on craigslist, a 1991 Honda Prelude Si for $1250, it ran and drove, five speed manual, he had the notarized title in hand, I had the cash in hand, and we trade. A few days later, I go to the MVD (DMV for you non-Arizonians) and try to get the title in my name and worry about registration later, they say "Is it up to date on its emissions?" "Nope" "Then you can't get the title in your name" "Great". I go to the emissions testing area, it fails, and I go "Welp" and I leave. I put another $1000 or so into fixing it up and getting it to run right, but it still won't pass emissions...
Fast forward to a couple months ago, I have moved to a different area of Arizona where conveniently, you don't have to pass emissions to register a car. Great, right? Except, somewhere in the move I lost the notarized title... AND I can't contact the previous owner for a duplicate because his phone number was never saved as a contact in my phone (which was destroyed). I tried sending him a letter in the snail mail explaining the situation to the address where he had the car registered, Rio Rico, where I don't believe he lives because we met for the sale in Tucson, but what the hell it's worth a shot; never heard back from it.
Well, maybe I can try to get some kind of bonded title thing to- wait... where did my prelude go? That's right ladies and gentlemen, the wonderful staff over at my apartment complex's office decided that it didn't look like anyone drove the prelude because it was in the same parking spot everyday and had it towed with a bunch of my property in it! (Custom fitted tuxedo, graduation gown, etc) Just what this story needed for a real conflict and climax, thank you apartment complex staff. So, I call the towing company and they say that I need the title or registration to pick up the car and it has to match my ID, no exceptions...
So what the hell do I do now, I can't prove the car is mine, It's a $200 flat charge + $20/day for it to be there, and I can't contact the previous owner for a duplicate title... If I can get the car back and get the title in my name somehow, I'm immediately getting rid of this cursed car, even if I just break even at this point, fuck it.
submitted by GABE_EDD to legaladvice [link] [comments]


2019.03.10 12:11 iminterestingplease Part 43

It's speeding up again. My first quick post in a while.
6824.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Antoine Griezman/Antoine Griezmann(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoine_Griezmann
6825.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Raphaël Varanne/Raphaël Varane(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raphaël_Varane
6826.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Marcel Dessailly/Marcel Desailly(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcel_Desailly
6827.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Moussa Sissokho/Moussa Sissoko(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moussa_Sissoko
6828.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Kurt Zuma/Kurt Zouma(Curt?)(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Zouma
6829.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Yohan Gourcuff/Yoann Gourcuff(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoann_Gourcuff
6830.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Fabrice Muemba/Fabrice Muamba(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fabrice_Muamba
6831.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Emmanuel NeueManuel Neuer(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Neuer
6832.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Mezut Özil/Mesut Özil(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesut_Özil
6833.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Phillip Lahm/Philipp Lahm(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philipp_Lahm
6834.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Shaun Wright-Phillips/Shaun-Wright Philips/Shaun-Wright Phillips(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaun_Wright-Phillips
6835.(Soccer Player name change.)Phillip Senderos/Philippe Senderos(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe_Senderos
6836.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Harry Mcguire/Harry Maguire(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Maguire
6837.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Victor Lindelhöf/Victor Lindelöf(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Lindelöf
6838.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Anders Herrera/Ander Herrera(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ander_Herrera
6839.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)James Madison/James Maddison(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Maddison
6840.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Owen Heargraves/Owen Hargreaves(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owen_Hargreaves
6841.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Damian Duff/Damien Duff(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damien_Duff
6842.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Graeme Sousness/Graeme Souness(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graeme_Souness
6843.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Niko KrančjaNiko Kranjčar(Nico?)(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niko_Kranjčar
6844.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)David Rozenhal/David Rozehnal(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Rozehnal
6845.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Angelo Charisteas/Angelos Charisteas(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelos_Charisteas
6846.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Alexander Song/Alexandre Song(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_Song
6847.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Luis Felipe Scolari/Luiz Felipe Scolari(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luiz_Felipe_Scolari
6848.(Famous Soccer Player name change.)Edgard Davids/Edgar Davids(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Davids
6849.(Book Title change.)The Protocol Of The Elders Of Zion/The Protocols Of The Elders Of Zion(Other names?)(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Protocols_of_the_Elders_of_Zion
6850.(Famous Olympic Athlete name change.)Teddy RinneTeddy Riner(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teddy_Riner
6851.(Company Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Good Times not touching?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Good_Times
6852.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember China making an artificial light three times hotter than the sun?
https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/china-creates-artificial-star-three-7330127
6853.(Famous Singer name change.)Mitch RideMitch Ryder(Do any of his or his band's logos look off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitch_Ryder
6854.(Phantom t.v. show.)Do you remember Cosby not existing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosby
6855.(T.V. Show name change.)The Reba McEntire Show/Reba(Was the R always capitalized and is the font or any of the logos off in any other way?)(Lots of messed up Bible changes and more messed up quotes people have said.)(Anything else off about the Married... With Children logo?)(Anything else off about Last Thing I Needed First Thing This Morning?)(Anything else off about Doctor Who?)(Spiders are eating, trapping and fighting larger prey.)(Plans to dim sun?)(Flambe/Flambé)(Lots of off cosmetic and website logos.)(The timeline of That '70s Show in the show and in real life is inconsistent.)(City vs. Citi in certain products.)(InShot logo is off.)(BBC started recording in 1922 and went public in 1926.)(The trigrams on South Korea's national flag have changed.)(Extremely long snakes.)(Gremlin monkeys now exist.)(Black bread now exists.)(Heroe/Hero)(Scientists have "reversed" time.)(Lots of website logo changes.)(Website generates images of fake people.)(Brylocream/Brylcreem)(Interesting video s below.)(Sirens now have wings.)(Clark chocolate bar logo is off.)(Wesfield/Westfield)(Celebrity Bowling is now a thing.)(Lands' End magazine letters are connected.)(Anything else off?)(Three's Company logo has connected letters.)(Earrings rules on whether or not you're gay have changed and other things.)(Do you remember Jerry Seinfeld saying "What is the deal with" instead of "What's the deal with" even though he never says either?)(Anything else off?)(Westclock/Westclox)(Anything else off?)(Lots of new and different The Jackson 5 footage and songs.)(The Jerry Seinfeld Show/Seinfeld)(Water powered vehicles?)(More on early Mars missions.)(Beko logo has changed.)(1950's typewriter that would let you type sheet music.)(Motorcycle chariot racing used to be a thing.)(Number of days in a year changing.)(More ice phenomenon.)(Polio Iron Lung machines used to exist.)(Lilith was now Adam's first wife.)(FordScript font now exists.)(Man has middle of ears removed by body modification artist.)(Scientists create chickens with dinosaur faces.)(Small foot pedicures and small hand manicures are popular right now.)(Jerry Seinfeld said "What's the deal with" related phrases a couple times in Seinfeld and throughout his book.)(More very large cats and dogs.)(Jesus used a wand?)(Lots of NBA related logo changes.)(SeatGeek logo has weird letters.)(More banana types.)(New device allows men to breastfeed.)(Leonardo da Vinci designed early robots?)(Lots of sports logos are off.)(Glacier Bay logo has off letters.)(Lots of new animals.)(Butterflies with number patterns in their wings.)(Donut shaped planets are possible.)(Little movie logo has connected letters.)(T.V. show in-logos are now starting to change.)(Bigby Coffee/Biggby Coffee)(Some SeaWorld logos have off letters.)(More birds sleep standing on one leg.)(Kobe Bryant now has done music.)(Steve Burns now has done music.)(Bruce Willis now has done music.)(Patrick Swayze now has done music.)(Jackie Chan now has done music.)(Other spellings of Jared's or Jared jewelry?)(Lots of Marvel and Detective Comics movie, video game, book and TV show logos have off and connected letters.)(Nest security camera logo has connected and off letters.)(Ravens now have white fur.)(Apple seeds aren't poisonous.)("Hanging in a chow line."/"Hanging in and jivin'.")(Tom Huddleston is now alive.)(More changes to Schrödinger's Cat.)More new ocean triangles.)(Mission: Impossible name changes.)(Tree that grows different kinds of fruits.)(I Wear My Sunglasses by Corey Hart lyrics have changed.)(Ninja kangaroo rat?)(Diamond planet named Lucy.)(17 hour clocks?)(Wet Your Appetite/Whet Your Appetite)(Have you heard of the word Whet?)(Penelope Cruz/Penélope Cruz)(Woman with two wombs?)(The multiple assassination attempts on Hitler.)(Did the Popeyes logo ever feature Popeye The Sailor?)(5G logo has off letters.)(Was Mr. Sandman sung by a guy group?)(John Travota/John Travolta)(Kim Kardassian/Kim Khardashian/Kim Kardashian)(Other remembered spellings of Milwaukee.)(CERN posted the first online photo and also had their own pop group.)(Other remembered inventors of the World Wide Web.)(Tortoise spiders now exist.)(Was there only one The Lion King movie and is the scene where Simba is raised into the air off now?)(Christopher Robinson/Christopher Robin)(Sea worms are getting larger and weirder than before.)(Black demon sharks now exist.)(Harambre/Harambe and has the pronunciation changed?)(Devil's goldfish now exists.)(Rainbow cheese now exists.)(James Dean's jacket in Rebel Without A Cause changed.)(Do you remember Chaka Khan never having HD live performances or HD music videos back in the 90's?)(Do any of their logos look off?)(Wasn't Rock Me Amadeus by Falco always sung in English?)(Anything else off?)(Do any of their logos look off?)(Pontiac Tojans now exist?)(More He-Man changes.)(The curved light lines most people see when they look at lights are because of astigmatism.)(Pink sharks now exist.)(Cochroach/Cockroach)(More changes to Alice In Wonderland.)(Don Wrinkles/Don Rickles)(Sky dome Atlantis?)(The Robert Berchtold story.)(Mushrooms that eat plastic.)(Owls can now deliver mail and can thrive a lot more during the day.)(A lot more inappropriate stuff on T.V. back in the day.)(Anything else about Koko The Gorilla off?)(Toyota FJ Cruisers now exist.)(Kinder surprise egg with Trump hair and KKK balloons.)(Rappin' Duke The Ha/Rappin' Duke Dah-Ha)(Other spellings?)(Anything else off?)(Do any of the logos look off?)(More weird colored animals.)(More weird stuff about death dates.)(Dairy Queen sells Coke products now instead of Pepsi products.)(Centralville, Texas/Centerville, Texas)(More off stuff about radar microwaves.)(Cathedrel/Cathedral)(Shawn Of The Dead/Shaun Of The Dead and has the ending changed?)(Anything else off?)(More weird plants.)(Elephant man.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=ugAdHaVFyFE
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=V8rfpQFwoxI
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reba_(TV_series)
6856.(T.V. Show name change.)The Roseanne Barr(Bar?)Show/Roseanne(Does the Font look off in general?)(Does the Martin font look off in general?)(Ariel from The Little Mermaid's eye color has changed.)(Subtitle colors, fonts and sizes have changed in certain places.)(USSR disbanding date keeps changing.)(AIVI French logo is off.)(John P. Sullivan/James P. Sullivan)(Michael Hutchinson/Michael Hutchence)(Vortical Sword/Vorpal Sword(Other spellings?)(Has anything in Kursk changed?)(Freddie Mercury is skinnier now.)(Lucas Cruinshank/Lucas Cruikshank)(Very large pet rabbits.)(Seagulls now eating things like rats.)(Interesting video below.)(Have you heard of the Nevada Triangle?)(Oopiaza/Dopiaza)(Lots of logo changes.)(Jim Henderson/Jim Henson)(Other spellings?)(Chime banking logo has off letters.)(Viasat logo and lots of credit company logos have off letters.)(Gaddafi's name keeps changing.)(Very giant wolves now exist.)(More Monty Python changes.)(Brocoli/Brocolli/Broccoli)(Other spellings?)(Everything about Flat Earth.)(Radar microwaves and similar stuff in the 70's.)(Woolly mammoth cells brought back to life.)(AC/DC is from Australia and not Austria.)(Turkeys sleep standing on one leg.)(Lots of company logo changes.)(Lots of cereal logos are off.)(Keith Richards is now alive.)(Walt Disny/Walt Disney)(Albino deer now exist.)(Lindsay Sterling/Lindsey Stirling)(Was Lindsey never an acceptable spelling of Lindsay?)(Eifel ToweEiffel Tower)(Broadly logo has off letters.)(1987 version of Cast Away movie.)(NYM logo has off letters.)(The Kirkpatricks vs. The Kirkpatrick place.)(Michigan Triangle now exists.)(Lots of movie line changes.)(UK passport now has unicorn instead of 2nd lion and national animal of Scotland is now unicorn.)(Weird Mandala pattern in cabbage.)(Weird recent flip-flops.)(Anything else off with certain previous changes I've mentioned?)("Galaxy" flowers with "universe" petals.)(Cat with orange eyes.)(Friday animated movie?)(Garry Shandling's death date keeps changing.)(Aquaduct/Aqueduct)(Other remembered spellings of Freddy Krueger?)(Traffic lights in Japan inverting.)(Ribon/Ribbon)(Eel that can change the shape of its body.)(Sandra Bullock was the one who played Accident Amy in George Lopez.)(Anything off about the Die Hard 2 airplane fight scene?)(Right On Time/Ride On Time)(Do any of her logos look off?)(Satelite/Satellite)(Other spellings?)(Lucille Balle/Lucille Ball)(Was Superman not in the 2017 Justice League movie?)(Anything else off?)
https://www.boredpanda.com/first-color-photos-vintage-old-autochrome-lumiere-auguste-louis
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roseanne
6857.(Fictional Character name change.)Foreman family/Forman family(Does the That '70s Show font look off in general?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Forman
6858.(Famous Comedian name change.)Monique/Mo'Nique
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mo'Nique
6859.(T.V. Show Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in My Wife And Kids not overlapping?(My Wife & Kids?)
https://mywifeandkids.fandom.com/wiki/My_Wife_And_Kids_Wiki
6860.(T.V. Show Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in The Golden Girls logos being normal?(Anything else off?)(Were the letters in Married... With Children not touching?)(Anything else off about the Married... With Children logo?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Golden_Girls
6861.(T.V. Show name change.)Chips/CHIPS/CHIPs/CHiPs(Other names?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/CHiPs
6862.(Phantom t.v. show.)Do you remember AfterMASH not existing?(Have you ever heard of NASH or do you remember it existing or did NASH become MASH?)(Anything else off?)(Is the MASH abbreviation or any of the logos off?)(Dancing meat.)(The Crooked Bush.)(Glowing flying animals.)(Do you remember "Dynomite" or "Kid dynomite"?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/AfterMASH
6863.(Phantom movie quote.)Do you remember Dirty Harry saying "Too much sugar is bad for you."?
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=ZMBoAiT5bdA
6864.(Song name change.)Fool On The Hill/The Fool On The Hill(Are the lyrics off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fool_on_the_Hill
6865.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Bill Cosby talking in a funny, emphasized voice ever?(Anything else off?)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=jJPudiBap4U
6866.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember insects like butterflies and flies not drinking tears?
http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20151222-butterflies-drinking-turtle-tears
6867.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember wombats not having cube shaped poop?
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2018/11/wombat-poop-cube-why-is-it-square-shaped/
6868.(Phantom t.v. show.)Do you remember Archie Bunker's Place not existing?(Anything about Kelcy vs. Tommy Kelsey off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archie_Bunker%27s_Place
6869.(Real Life appearance change.)Do you remember David Letterman always wearing glasses or sunglasses everywhere?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Letterman
6870.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Pickleball not being a thing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pickleball
6871.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(Albino ghost trees and plants, male zebras drown foals, more attacks on US soil in WW2, nude Mona Lisa, NASA admits it got rid of 2 of the Milky Way arms, bunny harvestman spider, you can light a candle using its smoke, glowing centipede blood, redwoods create communal root structure, sea squirts create and eat their own brains, lots of US territory changes and Washington D.C. is now listed separately, everything about wood duck, Light Of Lucifer, 100 foot sea critter, pinecone fish, a whole group of people killed Abraham Lincoln, satanic leaf-tailed gecko, compulsory sterilization, more Mona Lisa changes, lots of violent Mormon history, centipede kills snake in 3 minutes, more on blue people, painted bat, more weird animals.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=IP62SU_HwhQ
6872.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember restaurants where you eat off people not being a thing?
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=0QxB16Skp4U
6873.(Movie name change.)Herbie The Love Bug/The Love Bug
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Love_Bug
6874.(Phantom t.v. show.)Do you remember Three's A Crowd not existing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three%27s_a_Crowd
6875.(University Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Grand Canyon University not being connected?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Canyon_University
6876.(Phrase change.)"April showers bring May flowers."/"Spring showers bring May flowers."(Was the latter not acceptable?)(Was the former the only version that existed?)
https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/April_showers_bring_May_flowers
6877.(Carnival Ride name change.)Drop Zone/Drop Tower(Does the Carowinds logo look off?)
https://www.carowinds.com/play/rides/drop-tower
6878.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember mice not ever cleaning up messes they left or found?
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6821975/Pensioner-72-left-baffled-tidying-garden-shed-night-discovered-mouse.html
6879.(Famous Singer name change.)"Weird Al" Yankovich/"Weird Al" Yankovic(Is the pronunciation off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/"Weird_Al"_Yankovic
6880.(Famous Musician name change.)Frankie Yankovich/Frankie Yankovic(Is the pronunciation off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankie_Yankovic
6881.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(Spaceship jelly, European Russia, Moldova, Sea Of Azov, San Marino, shape shifting frog, African snail and giant snails in general, frozen sand towers, celestial eye goldfish, fennec fox bark, Attu Island invaded by Japanese, underground railroad mostly went to Canada and Mexico, Abraham Lincoln did not free the slaves, Lesotho, more anatomy changes, more weird monkeys and monkey changes, more geography changes, diameter of Earth, largest country changes, Eva(Ava?)Braun's relationship status to Hitler has changed, fugitive slave laws, more glowing animals, frogs that change color, not all octopuses have 8 tentacles.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=kjuS2dSJvLI
6882.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember ISIS being abolished a while ago?
https://www.politico.com/story/2019/03/20/trump-isis-syria-1229683
6883.(Phantom t.v. show quote.)Do you remember Zoidberg from Futurama saying "Why not Zoidberg?" ever in the show?
https://www.reddit.com/futurama/comments/26djut/since_it_comes_up_frequently_heres_a_list_of/
6884.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember The Birds being in black and white instead of color?
https://www.alternatememories.com/historical-events/movies/hitchcocks-the-birds-color-or-black-and-white
6885.(Spelling change.)Wedgewood/Wedgwood(Everything that is spelled Wedgwood.)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wedgwood
6886.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember James Bond never appearing in DC or Marvel comic books?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Bond_(comics)
6887.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember houseflies not ever having long legs ever?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Housefly
6888.(Phantom movie quote.)Do you remember John Wayne saying "Here's to ya(You?)pilgrim."?(Did he say "Pilgrim" and "Pilgrims" more often and in more of his movies?)
https://www.quora.com/When-did-John-Wayne-first-use-the-word-pilgrim-in-his-movies
6889.(Carnival Ride Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Batman: The Ride not being connected?(Are any of the other Batman logos off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batman:_The_Ride
6890.(Fictional Character appearance change.)Do you remember Brainy Smurf having a separation between his glasses instead of them being open?
https://smurfs.fandom.com/wiki/Brainy_Smurf
6891.(Candy name change.)Haribo Gummy Bears/Haribo Gold-Bears/Haribo Goldbears(Any of the other names off?)(Does the green one keep changing flavor?)(Was the red one strawberry or cherry and not red raspberry?)(Were green Lifesavers lime?)
https://www.amazon.com/Haribo-Gummi-Candy-Goldbears-Bags/dp/B000EVT042
6892.(Music Lyrics change.)"No matter how you toss the dice."/"No matter how we toss the dice."/"No matter how they toss the dice."(Any of their logos off?)
https://genius.com/The-turtles-happy-together-lyrics
6893.(Commercial Quote change.)"Be all that you can be."/"Be all you can be."(Anything else off with the slogan?)
https://www.military.com/daily-news/2018/06/26/army-wants-new-recruiting-slogan-powerful-be-all-you-can-be.html
6894.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember joining any part of the military always requiring you to have a buzz cut instead of there being a point in time where it wasn't required?(Were you not allowed to ride motorcycles?)(Were bed checks always done?)(Anything else off?)
http://www.militaryspot.com/enlist/5-common-mistakes-recruits-make
6895.(Music Lyrics change.)"When I wanted sunshine I got rain."/"When I needed sunshine I got rain."(Anything else off?)
https://genius.com/The-monkees-im-a-believer-lyrics
6896.(Fictional Character appearance change.)Do you remember Willy Wonka from Charlie And The Chocolate Factory having a purplish and gold outfit instead of a red one?(Has he always been portrayed in a purplish and gold outfit?)(Is his hair off?)(Are any of the related logos off?)
https://charlieandthechocolatefactoryfilm.fandom.com/wiki/Willy_Wonka
6897.(Date change.)Do you remember dial-up modems being invented in the late 1980's instead of the early 1960's?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dial-up_Internet_access
6898.(Carnival Ride Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in the older Great Adventure logo being normal?(Was the rainbow backwards from what it is now?)(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Flags_Great_Adventure
6899.(Painting change.)Do you remember the apple in The Son Of Man not having leaves on it?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Son_of_Man
6900.(Fictional Character appearance change.)Do you remember Bambi having blue eyes instead of brown?(Were her eyes a different color?)(Were there no square or striped spots on his back?)(Are his ears bigger and were there no black tips?)(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bambi_(character)
6901.(Animal appearance change.)Do you remember hedgehogs always only being dark brown?(Do honey badgers(Honeybadgers?)look off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedgehog
6902.(Music Lyrics change.)"Girls just wanna have fun."/"Girls just want to have fun."("They wanna have fun."/"They want to have fun.")(Any other lyrics off?)(Song title too.)(Anything else off?)
https://genius.com/Cyndi-lauper-girls-just-want-to-have-fun-lyrics
6903.(Fictional Character appearance change.)Do you remember Dr. Johnny Fever having black sunglasses instead of brown ones?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dr._Johnny_Fever
6904.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Scoobidoo Love by Paul Rothman sounding different in terms of pitch, beat, flow, and sound?(Do any of his logos look off?)(Any of the lyrics off?)
https://www.musixmatch.com/lyrics/Paul-Rothman/Scoobidoo-Love
6905.(Theme Song Lyrics change.)"How did I get to living here?"/"How did I get delivered here?"(Anything else off?)
https://www.lyricsondemand.com/tvthemes/fullhouselyrics.html
6906.(Music Lyrics change.)"Sun comes up."/"Sun goes up.")(Do any of either of their logos look off?)(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Comes_Up
6907.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember candle ice not being a thing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candle_ice
6908.(Music Lyrics change.)"Part of your world."/"Part of that world."(Anything else off?)
https://genius.com/Walt-disney-records-part-of-your-world-lyrics
6909.(Famous Actor name change.)Richard Dreyfus/Richard Dreyfuss
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Dreyfuss
6910.(Movie Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Girls Just Want To Have Fun not being connected?(Were the letters in the Grease movie logos not connected?)(Were the letters in the Hairspray movie logos not connected?)(Weird Al's Girls Just Want To Have Lunch song title has changed too.)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Girls_Just_Want_to_Have_Fun_(film)
6911.(Phrase change.)"Walks like a duck."/"Swims like a duck."
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duck_test
6912.(Commercial Quote change.)"Nobody out pizzas the Hut."/"No one out pizzas the Hut."
https://www.reddit.com/MandelaEffect/comments/b69h2l/pizza_hut_slogan/
6913.(Challenge name change.)Coca-Cola Challenge/Coke Challenge/Pepsi Challenge(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepsi_Challenge
6914.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(Elongated trephinated skull, rusty spotted cat, Easter Monday, in like a lion out like a lamb, cold air funnel cloud, tai sui ganoderma, slime mold, pupula duplex, polycoria, wild monkeys roam Florida, more Lincoln Memorial changes, more changes to Leaning Tower Of Pisa and other off and new leaning towers, living things in Dead Sea, more weird Ancient Egyptian stuff, eagle perches on animal and slowly eats it, mushrooms growing on Mars, Easter trees, more species of rhinos than the African ones and now some have 2 horns and others don't instead of one or the other or none.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=44ly7RF_0lc
6915.(Rock Band name change.)Procul Harum/Procol Harum(Do any of their logos look off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procol_Harum
6916.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Kanzi The Ape Genius not existing?(Did bonobos not exist?)(Anything else off?)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=btI68m-Gq7Y
6917.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember your tongue never being able to corrode due to overconsumption of sugary drinks or energy drinks?
https://viralhatch.com/index.php/2019/03/30/teachers-tongue-corroded-from-overconsumption-of-energy-drinks/
6918.(Movie Quote change.)"No one cares for the trees anymore."/"Nobody cares for the woods anymore."
https://www.reddit.com/MandelaEffect/comments/b783as/lord_of_the_rings_treebeards_famous_quote_no/
6919.(Phantom fictional character.)Do you remember Mr. Blue from Reservoir Dogs not existing?
https://medium.com/@ChristopherMJones/the-enigma-of-mr-blue-9f32968c7079
6920.(Gorilla name change.)Coco/Koko
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koko_(gorilla)
6921.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Wolf from Pulp Fiction having a custom license plate that said "Wolf" or "The Wolf" instead of having a regular license plate that says 3ABM581?(Anything else off?)
https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTns700FF2YJ5zNOe5y9dFHVn42JO3Ye7t1l1zrwMwf2NHXgxUJ
Add-On: Do you remember Boba Fett never having any weird hair locks on his outfit?(Anything else about him off?)(Did C-3PO never have weird bolt things on his chest and black palms?)(Anything else off?)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=FEDPohsrzjw
6922.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember neapolitan cows not existing?
https://www.lautnerfarms.com/do-you-ever-wonder-what-kind-of-cow-neapolitan-ice-cream-comes-from/
6923.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Ruby Falls in Tennessee not existing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruby_Falls
6924 .(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Golden Bridge in Vietnam not existing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Bridge_(Vietnam)
6925.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Krabby Patty gummies not having sesame seeds?
https://www.bulkcandystore.com/gummy-krabby-patties.html
6926.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember traffic lights and traffic light signs always being vertical?
https://www.driverknowledgetests.com/resources/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/horizontal-traffic-lights-595x287.jpg
6927.(Spelling change.)Omelet/Omelette(Was the latter never acceptable?)
https://www.grammarly.com/blog/omelet-omelette/
6928.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Taco Bell never selling hamburger-like products?
https://tacobell.fandom.com/wiki/Bellburger
https://tacobell.fandom.com/wiki/Bell_Beefer
6929.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Helen and Crazy Steve appearing in more episodes of Drake & Josh than they did?
https://drakeandjosh.fandom.com/wiki/Helen_Dubois
6930.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these products never being sold?(Cosmopolitan Yogurt, Chiquita Frozen Juice Bars, Life Savers(Lifesavers?)Soda, Kellogg's Breakfast Mates, Jell-O For Salads, Gerber Singles, Reddi-Bacon,(Ready Bacon?)Heinz EZ(Easy?)Squirt, Heublein's Wine & Dine, Funky Fries, Frito-Lay WOW! Chips, Colgate Frozen Entrees.)
https://www.thedailymeal.com/eat/12-most-embarrassing-food-product-fails-slideshow/
6931.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(Okapi tar and other changes, felis catus, exploding toads, pollen sun rainbows, fish scaled naked gecko, Esdras, whale voices getting lower, slow loris poison armpits, via cava roads, giant water bugs eat baby turtles, tamilok edible ship worms, Cheetos changing back and forth, rainbow squirrels keep changing, Chevrolet LUV pickup truck, Subaru logo and actual star history and placement keeps changing, caterpillar tracks land rover vehicles, Lost Sea adventure, spur-winged goose, more toxic birds, more anatomy changes, more Shiva changes, more Pyramids Of Giza changes, more Mount Rushmore changes, more geography changes, more The Creation Of Adam changes, more Easter Island statue changes, more Sphinx changes.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=DTJlud48LC8
6932.(Company name change.)Haliburton/Halliburton
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halliburton
6933.(Celebrity death date change.)Do you remember Hervé Villechaize dying in 2003 or just recently or another time instead of September 4, 1993?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hervé_Villechaize
6934.(Car Model Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Chevrolet Chevette not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevrolet_Chevette
6935.(Car Model Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Ford Escort not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Escort
6936.(Car Model Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Ford Fiesta not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Fiesta
6937.(Car Model Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Chevrolet Corsica not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevrolet_Corsica
6938.(Car Model Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Chevrolet Cavalier not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevrolet_Cavalier
6939.(Car Model Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Toyota 4Runner not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_4Runner
6940.(Car Model Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Ford Fusion not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Fusion_(Americas)
6941.(Car Brand Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Yugo not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yugo
6942.(Car Model Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Ford Tempo not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Tempo
6943.(Car Model Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Hyundai Tucson not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyundai_Tucson
6944.(Car Model Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Lexus LX not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexus_LX
6945.(Store name change .)Home Goods/HomeGoods(Were the letters not connected?)(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/HomeGoods
6946.(Company Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Beretta not being connected?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beretta
6947.(Company Logo change.)Do you remember the Lisa Frank logo being different?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisa_Frank_Incorporated
6948.(Restaurant Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Roy Rogers being normal?(Do any other Roy Rogers logos look off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Rogers_Restaurants
6949.(T.V. Show Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Sliders being normal?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sliders
6950.(Company Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Oakley Sunglasses being normal?(Anything else off?)
https://www.sunglasshut.com/m20/en/us/oakley
6951.(Company Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Swatch being normal?
https://www.swatch.com/en_us/
6952.(Store Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Lane Bryant not touching?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lane_Bryant
6953.(Company Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Paas not being connected?
https://paaseastereggs.com
6954.(Toy name change.)ZoltaZoltar Speaks
http://technitoys.com/building-a-working-zoltar-speaks-fortune-teller-2/
6955.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember vinyl boomboxes not existing?
http://thisisboombox.com/visions-of-backbeat-now-available-on-vinyl/
6956.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember the Howard Johnson's(Howard Johnson?)roof being a different color?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Johnson%27s
6957.(Phantom movie.)Do you remember The Man With The Red Shoe not existing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Man_with_One_Red_Shoe
6958.(City name change.)Tuscon, Arizona/Tucson, Arizona(Car and T.V. show too.)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tucson,_Arizona
6959.(Phantom celebrity death.)Do you remember Avicii being alive instead of dying on April 20, 2018?(Has his death cause changed?)(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avicii
6960.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember George Reeves playing the first live-action Superman instead of Kirk Alyn(Alan or Alken?)(Did Kirk Akyn not exist?)(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirk_Alyn
6961.(Famous Actress name change.)Shelly Long/Shelley Long(Was Shelley never an acceptable spelling of Shelly?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shelley_Long
6962.(T.V. Show Logo change.)Do you remember the letters in Fantasy Island not being connected?(Anything else off?)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=1x_QbVDlLbI
Add-On: Do you remember Redd Foxx's real name not having Sanford in it?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redd_Foxx
6963.(Famous Actor name change.)Jeff Conway/Jeff Conaway
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeff_Conaway
6964.(Lottery name change.)Mega Million/Mega Millions(Does the logo look off?)
https://www.megamillions.com
6965.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember safaris in Oregon not being a thing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wildlife_Safari
6966.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember these things being different or not a thing?(Bees living in woman's eyes, man with less than half a head, more odd hand digit numbers, the pope says the entire calendar is wrong, gaining a day this week, Israel moon lander selfie looks fake, broken heart syndrome, fishing bats, lizard live birth, snottite curtains, homo luzonensis, squirrel kings, wasps fly backward to avoid getting lost, The Great Transformation 2020, more geography changes, more element changes, rat king changes, Hitler didn't want to begin war, Paris syndrome, more Crazy Horse changes, chickens can keep head still while rest of body moves, x-ray burns cause hand to deform, neurons in heart and stomach, cat-faced spider, chicken with giant legs.)(Video below.)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=Dh3zdSTA3lo
6967.(Phantom real life quote.)Do you remember John F. Kennedy saying "There's a plot in this country to enslave every man, woman and child. Before I leave this high and noble office, I intend to expose this plot."?
https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/jfk-plot-in-this-country-to-enslave/
6968.(Fictional Character appearance change.)Do you remember Wonder Woman's outfit and some of her tools and weapons looking or being different?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wonder_Woman_(2017_film)
6969.(Movie Logo change.)Do you remember the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Die Hard movies not having connected letters?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Die_Hard_(film_series)
6970.(Date change.)Do you remember Amber Alerts never going as far back as The Andy Griffith Show?
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=4Kxh2d8XAvw
6971.(Fictional Character appearance change.)Do you remember Gizmo from The Gremlins looking different?(Was there 3 Gremlins movies?)
https://gremlins.fandom.com/wiki/Gizmo
6972.(Phantom t.v. show.)Do you remember The Lucy Show not existing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lucy_Show
6973.(Phantom t.v. show.)Do you remember Here's Lucy not existing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Here%27s_Lucy
6974.(Phantom t.v. show.)Do you remember Life With Lucy not existing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_with_Lucy
6975.(Famous Director name change.)J.J. Abrahams/J.J. Abrams(Other spellings?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._J._Abrams
6976.(Real Life appearance change.)Do you remember Jack Nicholson having blue eyes instead of brown?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Nicholson
6977.(Music Lyrics change.)"God, my receipts be lookin' like phone numbers."/"Yeah, my receipts be lookin' like phone numbers."(Other lyrics?)(Anything else off?)
https://genius.com/Ariana-grande-7-rings-lyrics
6978.(Famous Singer name change.)Luke Bryant/Luke Bryan(Do any of his logos look off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luke_Bryan
6979.(Real Life appearance change.)Do you remember Marcia Cross not having naturally red hair?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcia_Cross
6980.(Celebrity death cause change.)Do you remember Billy Mays dying on an airplane instead of on the ground?(Anything else off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Mays
6981.(Snack name change.)Grits/Gripz(Does the logo look off?)
https://www.keebler.com/en_US/cookies-and-more/gripz.html
6982.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember David Dobrik giving away cars to people for a much longer than he has been doing?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Dobrik
6983.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember Jenna Marbles always using her iconic squeaking intro?
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jenna_Marbles
6984.(Can't think of a title.)Do you remember whales not being able to wash up on Oklahoma river shores?
http://earth-chronicles.com/anomalies/in-oklahoma-on-the-shore-of-the-river-found-a-dead-whale.html
6985.(Car Model name change.)Chrysler Sirus/Chrysler Cirrus(Other spellings?)(Is the logo off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysler_Cirrus
6986.(Car Model name change.)Toyota Camry Solaris/Toyota Camry Solara(Is the logo off?)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Camry_Solara
6987.(History change.)Do you remember Ancient Greece starting the Olympic flame relay instead of Nazi Germany?
https://www.alternatememories.com/historical-events/general/olympic-flame-relay
submitted by iminterestingplease to Retconned [link] [comments]


2019.03.04 23:09 GalacticWolf87 I got pulled over for speeding and got caught for out of state license plate, what should I do?

I live in Arizona, Tucson to be exact, on 02/11/2019 I was pulled over speeding (80 mph in a 65 mph) I know it doesn't matter but pretty much I was going with the "flow" of traffic and since the ticket I keep it around 70-75mph and cars are constantly going around me to go faster on the freeway, idk if this would matter in court probably not. Anyways got pulled over for speeding, was written up for 1-10 mph over only, but also got written up for my out of state license place (california). I originally registered in California because it was cheaper to renew over there then do it over here. Because I work in Arizona I have to have an arizona license plate /registration. My license is also Arizona (my california license expired so I had to basically get one around july).
Heres my question:
  1. Is it worth going to court and fighting the ticket? My friend recently got a similar speeding ticket, she went to court, the cop didn't show up and the case was dismissed. Does this happen enough to try? If I do try to fight it I give up my chance to do a defensive driving course that would write off the ticket completely but cost ~$298. The total ticket is ~$800 for both violations.
  2. Is it worth registering my car with an Arizona registration before the hearing date? (the date when you can plead guilty or not guilty). If i register my car prior to then would they potentially drop that violation if I show proof that I got it done?
  3. The total is $800 as I stated, would the court let me do community service potentially instead of paying the fine. I work a minimum wage job so coming up with money is a stressor right now.
  4. If I plead guilty at the hearing is there a potential my fines will be reduced?
submitted by GalacticWolf87 to legaladvice [link] [comments]


2019.02.25 20:23 NewRCTID22 Countdown to Kickoff 2019: Portland Timbers

Countdown to Kickoff 2019: Portland Timbers

Basic Info:

Club Name: Portland Timbers
Location: Portland, Oregon
Stadium: Providence Park. Currently undergoing privately-funded renovations until 6/1.
Head Coach: Giovanni Savarese (2nd year)
Captain: Diego Valeri
Owner: Peregrine Sports, LLC
CEO/Majority Owner: Merritt Paulson
USL Affiliate: Timbers 2
Kits:

2018 in Review

Final Standings: 15-10-9 (W-L-D), 54 pts, +5 GD, 5th in the West
If you were living under a rock and wanted to know what occurred during the 2018 Portland Timbers Season, look no further than the 3-2 victory of Sporting KC in the Western Conference Finals 2nd leg. In so many ways, this match was a microcosm of the season as whole. At times, the Timbers were dull, uninspiring, and sometimes hapless, and at other points, you’d see moments of sheer brilliance from some of the league’s brightest superstars. For stretches of the season, the team would appear rock solid and tough to break down, reeling off 15 unbeaten from from April 14 - August 4. However, that stretch would be bookended by 5 games winless and 4 games winless at the start and end of the season, respectively. And just as hopes for a successful playoff push began to slip after a dreary nil-nil performance against FC Dallas in late September, the Green-and-Gold rattled off two blowout wins against RSL to secure their first ever even-year playoff berth.
With this newly-(re)acquired confidence, the 10-man Timbers escaped a knockout round match in Dallas on the back of a Diego Valeri brace, setting up a heavyweight showdown with Seattle in the WC Semifinals. The first leg ended 2-1 in favor of the Rose City, but this match, while fairly entertaining, would be overshadowed by the pure, unrefined, 8-ball of MLS-yness that the 2nd leg served up. The match, which was originally scheduled for the following Sunday, was moved to a Thursday night due to the Seattle International Car Show. The first half though? Completely unforgettable. The second half and extra time? I could go on for this whole preview. For the sake of brevity, I encourage you to sample some it for yourself.
As Sam Stejskal stated, the “Wildest, craziest, worst, best, most MLS game of all-time and it finished at damn near 2 am ET on a Friday morning because of the Seattle International Car Show. Never forget.” Valium wasn’t enough.
A few weeks later, we hit the aforementioned 2nd leg match-up at Sporting Kansas City. As Blanco rifled home an an absolute corker, and Valeri converted two sucker punches, it was suddenly clear this underdog, scrappy, and mercurial side was on its way to MLS Cup. Ultimately, the challenge against Atlanta United proved to be too much, as the Timbers succumbed to the Five Stripes 2-0, but getting there was well worth the ride.
In the end, the 2018 Timbers were a paradox. Almost always an underdog, but possessed three of the best players in the league. Lucky to be in the final, but still deserving at the same time. Nevertheless, 2018, even though it didn’t finish the way we all had hoped, will always be a cherished season in the Rose City.

The Coach

The credit goes to now 2nd year manager Giovanni Savarese, who I view as embodiment of the organization as a whole. He might not have the biggest name in global soccer, but he’s got a chip on his shoulder, is extremely passionate for the sport, and wants to throw his weight around with the big boys in the league.
The former Venezuelan int’l tinkered with the lineup throughout the season, as he started with a 4-2-3-1 press, mixed in a 5-4-1 and 4-3-2-1, before returning back to the 4-2-3-1 during the playoff push. His ultra-pragmatic style ruffled a few feathers in the Timbers fanbase which had become accustomed to more enterprising soccer during the Caleb Porter era, but he knew defensive rigidity would provide the foundation for success. Let’s put it this way: in the two years the Timbers solidified its defense, the squad went to MLS Cup.
Will Gio return to pragmatic soccer, or will he try to reinstall a medium press that really didn’t work effectively? Rumor has it that Savarese is attempting to push the line up a bit more, but I’d be surprised to see it stick around based on the relatively unathletic backline plus an aging core.

Departures

Liam Ridgewell (CB): 2018 was a rollercoaster season for Ridgy. After being mentally absent during two bad losses at the beginning of March, Ridgewell was physically absent from the team for most of March to August after a ‘difference in opinion’ with Savarese (injuries played a part as well). During this time, his wife gave birth to a beautiful baby girl, but you could tell the former captain still spent those few months disheartened to not feature on the pitch. And let’s be clear, for all of his faults on and off the field, the man changed the course of our franchise. After years of dealing with a sieve of a backline (ft. superstars like Hanyer Mosquera, Raushawn McKenzie, Danny O’Rourke, and more), Ridgewell plugged the leaks and eventually captained the side to MLS Cup. The end of 2018 proved to be more of the same as he avoided tearing everything in his lower body and helped lead the team back to MLS Cup. Unfortunately, his tenure in green-and-gold ended after the cup final, but he should never have to buy a drink again in PDX. And boy does he love a drink or two (or seven).
Alvas Powell (RB): Few players in MLS regressed to the extent that Alvas Powell has since his very strong 2015 campaign. After playing a key role on the way to MLS Cup 2015, he failed to live up to his potential without Nat Borchers by his side. From 2016-2018, his suspect crossing never improved, he relied far too much on recovery speed, and he could never quite string together consistent performances.
We all wish Alvas the best of luck in Cincinnati. He’s a great kid, and we watched him grow and mature into the confident and funny presence he is today. However, with the amount of talent and athleticism he possesses, there’s no reason Zarek Valentin should have beaten him out for the starting RB spot once Villafaña returned from Santos Laguna. At 24, the Jamaican int’l can still revitalize his career with Alan Koch’s men, but he is at serious risk of becoming another case of “what if” if his stint in Cincy proves unsuccessful.
Samuel Armenteros (ST): One of the many TAM signings of the 2018 offseason, the Swedish int’l joined the club on loan from Serie A misfit Benevento. For a period of time from mid-May to mid-July, Armenteros was unconscious in front of goal. With a cultured left-foot and a penchant for Bergkamp-esque magic, we all thought replacing the recently-offloaded Fanendo Adi was a non-issue. However, things went south from there - and as I’ve heard, it wasn’t necessarily a fault of his own. With no break for over a year or more, his body simply began to break down, and soon enough the writing of his departure was on the wall. Even as Jeremy Ebobisse and Lucas Melano took over his spot in the squad, Armenteros remained an upbeat presence in the locker room and celebrated the club’s triumphs like one of the key contributors . In the end, we’ll be left to wonder what a break and another full season could’ve done for him.
Jake Gleeson (GK) : The big Kiwi’s departure means no Timbers remain from 2011’s inaugural season opener. Even with his big frame and the occasional spectacular, sprawling save, Gleeson never could quite control his penalty area or produce accurate distribution out of the back. Through a double whammy of injuries and an in-form Jeff Attinella, Gleeson’s tenure really ended back in mid-April but was officially announced this offseason with little fanfare. The rumor mill suggests he’s still sticking around Portland, so perhaps he may find a way back into the organization in an off-the-field capacity. Either way, for the first time since 2010, the Timbers will begin a professional season without Gleeson amongst its goalkeeping ranks.
Lawrence Olum (CDM): The “Kenyan Messi” departs after two years of spot duty at CB and CDM for the club. Some of us give the man a bad rap based on his inability to do much more than pass backwards and occupy space that would be otherwise seized by opposing attackers, but he wasn’t disastrous. In the end, after accumulating 52 appearances for the Timbers over the past two seasons, the next phase in Olum’s career commences.
Victor Arboleda (RM/LM): Arboleda departs after featuring mostly for Timbers 2 over the past few seasons. Outside of blistering pace, the young Colombian never displayed an ample skill-set to break into the league. There was some hope that he’d be the first T2 player to make a consequential impact on the first team, but any remaining hope was lost when he was ousted to make room for the incoming Tomas Conechny.
Jack Barmby (LM/CAM): The left-footed Englishman ends an inconspicuous three-year stint with Portland after not showing much to suggest he’s capable of playing at an MLS level. He recently joined USL outfit San Antonio FC and figures to be a part of SAFC’s plans at least for this season. Other than that, I don’t really have much to say - and that kinda says it all.
Has been training with the squad and still could be re-signed:
Roy Miller (CB): Throughout his MLS career, the Costa Rican has been the center of a few notable memes and running jokes. However, in 2017, he put together a pretty darn good season at CB before shredding his achilles the day before a crucial 2nd leg playoff matchup vs Houston. Consequently, he missed all of the 2018 season barring a few appearances with T2. I fully expected that would be the last we saw of Miller in Timbers green, but he’s been ever present in preseason training camp (although at LB...which is not his best spot). Roy is highly respected in the locker room, so I would not be shocked if he re-signed as a depth piece on a short-term deal.

2019 Outlook:

In one word: continuity. As of right now, I would imagine 9 or 10 starters from MLS Cup will walk out onto the pitch March 2 in Colorado, with the core of Valeri, Chara, Blanco, Mabiala, and more expected to produce big moments once again. However, with Providence Park undergoing renovations to incorporate an extra 4,000 seats, the Timbers will have to weather 12-straight road tests before taking on LAFC on June 1 in its cacophonous cauldron of a home. With the exception of a disastrous 2016, the Timbers are amongst the league’s best on the road since 2013, but 12 on the bounce is a daunting task for even the most battle-tested squads.
Extended road swings are no rarity in this league, and D.C. United proved a little momentum and a chunk of home games can catapult a team up the standings. From August 10 - September 25, the Timbers will have an opportunity to emulate the Black-and-Red as 10 teams venture into Providence Park during this stretch. The compacted 2019 schedule will likely prove to be an additional hurdle for an aging core, and no doubt the squad’s depth will be tested throughout the year. But even with these external factors, this team is talented enough to qualify for the playoffs, and anything less than the 7th seed will be a considerable failure.

Acquisitions:

Claude Dielna (CB): This one is puzzling to me. For a club known for scouring the globe to find and acquire talent, resorting to signing an intra-league defender (who was frozen out of the lineup from July 15 on) to a TAM contract seems….odd. I can understand the logic to a certain extent: as a left-footed, veteran presence, he could be an easy plug-and-play for the departed Liam Ridgewell. Additionally, as a Francophone, he’s immediately developed a connection with fellow defenders Larrys Mabiala and Bill Tuiloma, who also spent their youth careers in France. Ultimately, this change of scenery could prove to be more fruitful than his tenure in New England, however, the 31-year old Frenchman has played exclusively with the 2nd team during preseason. And he certainly didn’t look great when he was utterly shook by Adam Jahn of all people.
Jorge Moreira (RB): The most recent and likely the biggest (for now) offseason acquisition, Jorge Moreira has the potential to be one of the top RBs in MLS. With an impressive pedigree as a former River Plate regular and full Paraguayan int’l, Moreira will likely augment an already fearsome attack with a more attack-minded approach than Zarek Valentin. However, questions linger about his ability to adjust to MLS, in addition to concerns over a recent knee injury that sidelined him from October 2017 - August 2018. That said, with roughly 15 other native Spanish speakers amongst the squad (including 9 South Americans), I’m not extremely worried about his ability to acclimate to the team. Additionally, his injury seems to be a burden of the past and could be a blessing for Timbers supporters - he was a key contributor for one of this hemisphere’s biggest clubs, but the injury and subsequent youth movement/rise of Gonzalo Montiel allowed the Timbers to swoop in and sign him. Expect to see Valentin start the season to ease Moreira into the swing of things, but he should be the starter from then on.
Marvin Loría (LM/RM/CAM): There’s high hopes that Marvin Loría can make the transition between T2 and the first team even when others like Victor Arboleda have struggled to do so. The 21-year-old Costa Rican, who received his first national team cap against the US back in January, has a cultured left foot and doesn’t hesitate to rip from distance. However, he’s still very much a work in progress, and he’ll have to learn to cope with MLS level athleticism and quality while over-relying on his left foot. The door is open for him though - if Andy Polo fails hold down a starting spot, Loría could be right there to slot in.
Renzo Zambrano (CM): Another signing from T2, the Venezuelan int’l provides additional depth to the central midfield. In an appearance or two in the Open Cup, Zambrano looked the part of an MLS quality player, but he has a ways to go before overtaking Chara, Guzman, Paredes, or even Andres Flores. The T2 captain led the USL side in interceptions, tackles, and duels won, so if he can continue to grow in its engine room this season, Zambrano could be a potential solution for filling Chara’s shoes in the future.
Aljaz Ivačič (GK): The 25-year-old Slovenian int’l was acquired with an eye towards the future. After 43 appearances for Olimpija Ljubljana in his native country, Ivačič makes the switch across the Atlantic in search of a new challenge. However, shortly after arriving, the Timbers medical staff uncovered a leg injury that required surgery and will knock him out of training for the next 6-8 weeks. Fortunately, the front office was able to renegotiate around $200,000 off his original transfer fee because of it. With Steve Clark and Kendall McIntosh already on the roster, his inclusion in the team is not paramount, so this will be a guy to definitely keep an eye on for the upcoming seasons.
___ ____ (ST): ___ ____ is the designated player we were promised to be signing this offseason, but has yet to materialize. At first, the rumor mill churned out potential targets like Julian Quiñones and Ezequiel Ponce, but neither report evolved into anything substantial. As word began to travel that Gavin Wilkinson and co. were searching for a higher profile target, we were treated to accounts of a significant bid for Tigres forward, Eduardo Vargas. However, the Timbers were willing to spend $8.5mil while Tigres wanted a whopping $12.5mil, so Wilkinson and Paulson rightly balked at the offer.
So, we’re back to the drawing board with one week until kickoff. The club has been consistent and adamant, really since before MLS Cup, about wanting a DP attacker that will complement Ebobisse and elevate the rest of the squad. The championship window for the core is closing soon, and to be quite honest, Jebo still isn’t enough to maximize the team’s potential. The transfer window doesn’t end until May 7, but the likelihood of acquiring a high-profile player gets slimmer by the day. In the end, the Timbers may have to wait until the summer window when more players are available, although more suitors will emerge as well.

A word on everyone else:

Goalkeepers:
Jeff Attinella (GK): 2018 was a career year for Jeff, Jeff, Jeff. After years behind Nick Rimando and a one-year battle with Jake Gleeson, Attinella finally cemented himself as the #1 in April 2018. Apart from a few rare mishaps, Attinella was a solid and calming demeanor between the pipes, and his distribution out of the back was an understated catalyst for a deadly counter-attacking side. Now, he’ll enter 2019 as the undisputed starter which creates a whole new array of expectations for someone whose career has been defined by overcoming adversity.
For more on the man in net, I highly, highly recommend this podcast he did with Zarek Valentin. Timbers fan or not, it highlights the journey it takes to make it in MLS, and also provides a few intriguing insights into the likes of Nick Rimando and Tim Melia. Sometimes it’s difficult to appreciate that these players are just normal guys, but this interview does a tremendous job of teasing that out.
Steve Clark (GK): Some say Steve Clark has been a Timber since December 2015 even though he only arrived in August 2018 (sorry Crew fans). The MLS veteran keeper spelled Jeff Attinella in a few injury-relief appearances down the stretch and came up with a timely save or two. However, at this point in his career, Clark is nothing more than a solid backup, but he seems to enjoy Portland, so we’re glad to have him around.
Kendall McIntosh (GK): McIntosh is an undersized goalkeeper whose frame and athleticism is reminiscent of the likes of Nick Rimando. He’s been a career T2 netminder and is still very raw, but he’ll likely stick around with the first team until Ivačič returns from injury rehab. Expect him to be loaned back to T2 or to a lower league club elsewhere to gain experience when the Slovenian returns.
Defenders:
Zarek Valentin (RB/LB): Zarek Valentin is still the epitome of serviceable, and it has allowed him to carve out a pretty decent MLS career in spite of his lack of top-end footspeed. Probably one of the most outgoing and eccentric personalities on the team, Valentin’s value is just as present in the locker room as it is on the pitch, and he’ll continue to grow as a veteran leader this season. Valentin produces starter quality minutes at both fullback positions, but his low ceiling, particularly going forward and dealing with pacey wingers, means he’ll be fighting for time again in 2019. That said, we say the same thing coming into every year, and when all is said and done, Zarek has always found a way to contribute on the pitch.
Larrys Mabiala (CB): 2019 is a big year for the French-Congolese central defender. While he had his missteps as all centerbacks do, 2018 was generally a good year for Mabiala who bagged 5 goals and 2700+ minutes in one of the better defenses in Timbers’ history. His aerial presence and physicality gives trouble to even the Chad Marshalls and Kendall Wastons of the world, but the former PSG academy player is not the quickest over ground or the most vocal presence on the pitch. In particular, his vocal leadership will be tested this season without Liam Ridgewell’s boisterous and commanding nature beside him. It’s rare to find a moment where Mabiala doesn’t have the biggest smile or most upbeat attitude in the locker room, but he’s more of the type to go about his business in an understated manner. With the strenuous road stretch ahead, his play on the pitch and leadership on the backline will be put under a microscope. I think he can handle it, but it won’t be easy.
Bill Tuiloma (CB): Although Julio Cascante appears to have the edge based on preseason, the big Kiwi would be my pick to regularly start alongside Larrys Mabiala. After a few years with Marseille’s reserve sides, Tuiloma arrived as a T2 signing in 2017, but played in some crucial matches last season including the playoff 1st leg vs Seattle and 2nd leg @ Sporting KC. Outside of a few poor clears, he was solid when given the opportunity, and his better range and ability to pick out line-splitting passes are key assets to fit alongside Mabiala’s physical presence. In a lot of ways, he reminds me of an Aaron Long type player: a young, low salary, converted CDM who works his way up into an important role on the backline. His Francophone chemistry with Mabiala and Dielna may also serve him well, but anything over 700 first team minutes would be a new frontier for Tuiloma. Even though he will begin the season on the bench, expect him to mount a real challenge for the starting spot over the course of the year..
Julio Cascante (CB): After an inconsistent 2018 campaign, Cascante has emerged as the anticipated starter alongside Mabiala to the surprise of many. As I mentioned in Larrys’ blurb, all centerbacks make notable mistakes based on the nature of their position, but Cascante’s were usually more notable and more frequent. His height and build forges a formidable aerial pairing with Mabiala, but also causes him to struggle to sort his feet out in pressure-filled situations. Generally speaking, CB is a problematic position to have an unsettled rotation, and few Timbers’ fans have confidence that Cascante has the dependability to hold down the LCB spot on a regular basis. However, as the Costa Rican embarks on the prime of his career with a season under his belt and a surprising fluency in English, perhaps he will be the pleasant surprise of the year.
Jorge Villafaña (LB): El Sueño returned from a brief adventure in Mexico last August and put together a dependable if unremarkable end to the 2018 season. In many ways, Portland is home to the US int’l, as the Timbers picked him up as a Chivas USA outcast in 2014, and gave him an opportunity to become the best LB in club history. While he lacks ideal stature and athleticism, his crossing ability is second to none, and he offers a more dangerous attacking arsenal than Zarek Valentin. Like Valentin though, he struggled with pacey wingers ala Michael Barrios and hasn’t quite replicated the peak of his 2015 campaign where he consistently locked down the defensive left side. At 29, Jorge still has a few more good years left in his legs, but with Zarek hot on his heels, any dip in form could see him in an intense competition for a starting spot.
Marco Farfan (LB): I was pretty high on the Homegrown LB coming into 2018, but Farfan did not take the next step in his development last year. Again, he battled with injuries, and when he was given the opportunity to start at the beginning of last year, he struggled to keep up with the pace of the game. As the 20-year-old enters this campaign firmly behind Villafaña and Valentin on the depth chart, he’ll have his work cut out for him to convince the staff that he’s worthy of game action. However, Jeremy Ebobisse emerged from a similar situation last year - we’ll see if Farfan can stay fit enough to do the same.
Modou Jadama (CB/RB): After only one first team appearance in 2018, the Gambian shouldn’t feature too often this season. He provides cheap depth at both right back and center back, but will mostly be tasked with leading T2’s backline this year.
Midfielders:
Diego Valeri (CAM): There’s not much to say about the Maestro that hasn’t already been said. A top class player and an even better human being, Valeri will go down as one of the greatest signings in MLS history. After an MVP season with 21G and 12A in 2017, his production dropped off to 10G and 12A last season, although the dip could be attributed to a change of style and formation. Timbers fans and neutrals will certainly hope to see more of vintage Valeri whose direct and progressive style is eye candy to soccer lovers everywhere. In this house, we worship at the Church of Diego. Build the statue.
Sebastian Blanco (LM/RM): Sebastian Blanco is the human manifestation of when a smaller dog picks a fight with another dog 4x its size. But his temperamental and fierce nature on the pitch can only be matched by his moments of pure inspiration. Only the Timbers can boast that it had two double-digit G + A players last season, and as good as Valeri was again, Blanco probably outperformed him on the year. Left foot, right foot, or even with his head, the diminutive Argentine winger consistently uncorks bangers, and I’d expect to see more of the same in 2018. He’s the guy you’d hate to play against, but love to have on your team, and we’re certainly glad to see him on our side.
David Guzman (CDM): Matt Doyle on ETR said it best: Guzman’s an experienced 28-year-old with the erratic swings of a 19-year-old. From March to May 2017, he looked like the classic holding #6 to fit like a glove next to the ground-covering ability of Diego Chara. The rest of 2017? Almost a complete liability with the aggression of an angry bull and positional awareness of a lost child. After sustaining an injury that left him out of the rotation for much of Spring 2018, Guzman went to Russia with the Costa Rican national team and came back almost an entirely different player. During the stretch run, he appeared to have simplified his game, produced timely attacking support, and completely pantsed Michael Bradley. No doubt his sudden ascent to form helped propel the Timbers to MLS Cup, hinting at his importance to the team operating at an optimal level. However, relying on Guzman’s consistency is not an enviable position, so I’ll continue to hold stock in Cristhian Paredes.
Diego Chara (CDM): When I mentioned we worship at the Church of Diego, I didn’t just mean Valeri. At this point in his career, Chara has been mentioned perennially as the league’s most underrated player, but yet he’s still probably underrated somehow. Even with Valeri’s 2017 MVP season, the Colombian pitbull has continued to be (arguably) the team’s MVP every year, as Portland has not won any of the last 19 matches that Chara has not participated in. He has the ability to chase down Miguel Almiron, a pillowy first touch, an immense soccer IQ, and a fearless presence in the middle of the park - all qualities that make him the team’s most indispensable player. Although he’s shown Energizer Bunny levels of stamina and resolve, father-time is still undefeated. I don’t have any doubts about the soon-to-be 33-year-old’s ability to perform this season, but at some point someone will have to try to replicate his priceless productivity. Build the statue parte dos.
Andrés Flores (CM): Andres Flores is like a Toyota Camry - solid if unspectacular. He’s doesn’t have the sexy style that will garner all the attention, but when push comes to shove and you need to get from point A to point B, he’ll do the job. The El Salvadorian is an essential (and bilingual) piece in the locker room, and he has earned the trust of Savarese dating back to their time together at the New York Cosmos. Look for him to assist in spot-duty, but his most important contributions will likely be found in the little things off the pitch.
Cristhian Paredes (CM): For the first 3-4 months of the 2018 season, Cristhian Paredes was somewhere in between a good signing and a potential revelation in midfield. The young Paraguayan int’l was great over ground, calm on the ball, and look poised to be one of the season’s breakout players. Then, family tragedy struck. After his uncle passed away and Mom got sick, homesickness and guilt from being so far away from home hampered his play on the field. Still only a teenager and unable to speak English, his confidence faltered and was unable to clear the mental block necessary to get back in the team. This offseason, he was very open about his struggles, but he seems highly motivated to become a star on this team. Overall, his body looks more sculpted and his comfort with Gio and the squad will only improve. Who knows, maybe the 20-year-old will become one of the next big time transfers out of MLS.
Andy Polo (RM): With 1G, 2A in 1600 minutes, the Peruvian winger failed to produce anything substantial on the scoresheet during his first season in Portland. With that said, there’s two sides to the coin here. Yes, Polo needs to be more goal dangerous or at least find himself in more threatening spots to create gaps for his attacking partners. But a lot of what Polo brought to the table won’t always appear in the stats, as his defensive workrate and positioning was as impactful as we’ve ever seen from a Timbers winger. Year 2 will be big for Polo to show improvement, and no doubt his position as the RCM in a 4-3-2-1 and lengthy break to join Peru for the World Cup inhibited his inaugural campaign’s productivity. Although with Marvin Loría, Dairon Asprilla, Tomas Conechny, and possibly a new DP signing breathing down his neck, his leash may not be as long this season.
Tomas Conechny (LM/RM): When the former Argentine U-20 int’l arrived in Portland last summer, he accumulated only 79 minutes of first team action and frankly didn’t demonstrate much to elicit excitement. With an additional comfort with the city and the club, 2019 is bound to be different, and Conechny has shown glimpses of why the Timbers decided to renew his loan this preseason. Similar experiments with the likes of Jack Barmby have not yielded adequate results, though Conechny will still have the opportunity to establish himself as a vital depth piece.
Dairon Asprilla (RM): Also known as Señor noviembre, Dairon Asprilla is one of the league’s most inefficient high-volume shooters...unless he’s playing big time matches in November. After lacing this absolute belter vs Dallas in 2015 (in addition to a goal vs Houston in 2017), Asprilla continued his playoff hot streak with a equalizer and game winning PK conversion @ Seattle in that wacky 2nd leg. However, those moments pretty much highlighted Asprilla’s 2018. At this point, you know what you’re getting from the Colombian winger. Apart from occasional moments of magic, he’ll continue to struggle in front of net, although his energy and physicality will certainly push incumbent RM Andy Polo for game minutes. He’ll be an important depth piece, but if he’s forced to be anything more, the Timbers are in for a long season.
Eryk Williamson (CM): The 21-year-old former D.C. United Academy product spent half of last season on loan to Azorean club Santa Clara where he had limited involvement. I wouldn’t expect him to feature much this season, although he’ll have the opportunity to show himself in T2 matches. But hey, he’s Queen Latifah’s cousin.
Forwards:
Jeremy Ebobisse: A lot of people hopped aboard the Ebobisse hype train following a string of quality performances down the stretch. But make no mistake, the young American has to become more goal dangerous before he earns the complete trust and confidence of Savarese and the FO. His hold-up play is generally strong, and it’s not imperative that he puts in double-digit goals with Blanco and Valeri behind him. At the same time, it’s valid to wonder if his ceiling is high enough to maximize what may be the last year in the core’s championship window. The former 4th overall draft pick will have the opportunity to lead the line at least for the first few months, but the DP forward is bound to arrive sooner or later. If Ebobisse takes the next step in his development, the DP will step in alongside him in one of the most frightening attacks in the league. But if he doesn’t, he could be replaced and quickly forgotten. Twelve months ago, Jebo was buried behind Fanendo Adi and Samuel Armenteros with little hope of breaking into the first team. Now, he’s likely the opening day starter with MLS Playoff experience and two superstars to support him. The ball’s in his court. (He won the Tucson tourney golden boot so good start!)
Lucas Melano: The 2019 version of Lucas Melano might just challenge your preconceived notions of one of the biggest DP busts of the last half-decade. Melano’s first stint in Portland was marred by petulance, laziness, and an inability to convert in front of goal, all of which contributed to a 1.5 year exile back to Argentina. I’ll be the first to admit, I was fairly vocal about not wanting him back, but Melano has shown us something different since returning midseason. While he’s far from a clinical finisher and still has a Nagbe-esque distrust in his left foot, he seems to have a clearer picture of what he wants to do on the field. Part of that comes from a position switch from winger to striker, and part stems from comfort off the pitch. During his time in Argentina, Melano continued to take English classes with an eye on returning to Portland. He’s no longer a DP player with the pressure to perform like a DP, and his explosive pace will provide both a spark off the bench and a stark contrast to Ebobisse’s hold up style.
Foster Langsdorf (ST): After 14 goals in 29 appearances for T2 last season, the second-year Homegrown signing might have a slight chance of first team minutes until the DP signing arrives. A Stanford graduate who finished his collegiate career with the most goals in Pac-12 history, Langsdorf doesn’t possess a particularly imposing skillset but seems to just find himself in the right place at the right time. In that way, he’s almost a poor man’s Wondo, although it remains to be seen whether his poacher’s instinct is sufficient enough to cut it at this level.
Predicted Starting XI:
4-2-3-1
Best Case Scenario:
Valeri, Chara, and Blanco put up another Best XI caliber campaign. The backline is solid if not great, and one of Tuiloma, Cascante, or Dielna establishes themselves as a go-to CB option. Ebobisse takes the next step, and the younger side of the squad makes a big leap right alongside him. The Timbers comfortably exit its 12-game road excursion with 4 or 5+ wins and dismantles all opponents who dare to enter the cauldron that is Providence Park during the 10 game homestand. A top seed is secured for the playoffs and the late season momentum catapults the boys in green all the way back to MLS Cup.
Worst Case Scenario:
The large road trip takes its toll on the squad both in the standings and on the injury report. Valeri and/or Chara succumb to the death-grip of father time, while the backline is a rotating cast of suckitude. None of the young guns or new acquisitions are able to contribute effectively, and the Timbers can’t dig themselves out of a hole going down the stretch. Just like 2014 and 2016, Portland is unable to follow up a successful season with a playoff berth, and #GioOut and #GWOut become vogue amongst a passionate but melodramatic fanbase.
Realistic Scenario:
Probably somewhere in between. The record before June 1st is thrown out the window as the newly renovated Providence Park (and Gold Cup break) provide a critical refresher. Valeri and/or Blanco put up another double digit G/A season, while Chara is indispensable as ever. The backline is middle-of-the-road, but good enough to prop up an ever-potent attack. The Timbers finish somewhere between the 4th and 7th seed and provide another difficult challenge for the Western Conference’s higher seeds.
Prediction:
I’ll say 5th seed and upset or two in the playoffs before petering out. This team isn’t really constructed to compete for a Supporter’s Shield, but it’s a complete pain in the neck to confront in a playoff format. On any given day, Valeri and Blanco can take over a match, and if the Timbers acquire an Eduardo Vargas or Julian Quiñones, the front three of four will completely shred you to pieces on the counter. On the flipside, the backline doesn’t always inspire confidence, and David Guzman is a complete wild card in an important spot in the middle of the park. As a result, when all pieces are in-form, the Timbers can beat anyone, anywhere. When a few pieces are off-kilter, conceding three (bad) first half goals in Minnesota becomes a stark reality. Overall, it won’t be the end of the world, but it may be a disappointment in terms of potentially the core’s last hurrah.

Bonus predictions:

  • Timbers Army member, who claims to be an Active Supporter™, tweets out something to the effect of “I’m not supporting this club until significant changes are made” during a tough stretch early on. The use of the Rose City ‘Til I Die hashtag is still used unironically.
  • Following an egregious, match-deciding missed called by Ted Unkel, Merritt Paulson throws hands with a front office staffer attempting to prevent him from re-accessing his Twitter account
  • Sebastian Blanco whips out his celebratory Chucky mask following another sublime goal. A local ball-kid who is close to the action develops frequent nightmares as a result of the event.
  • After the final whistle of the first draw of the season, the squad deliberates with Zarek Valentin to ensure that penalty kicks are not to follow.
  • Lucas Melano attempts to use his left foot. The resulting product is so shocking that Timbers fans vow to never speak of it again. All who witnessed the disaster are scarred for eternity.

Online Resources

Official Links: Website Twitter
Local Coverage: Oregon Live Stumptown Footy
Best Podcast ft. Jeff Attinella and Zarek Valentin: From J to Z
Best Twitter follows: Jamie Goldberg Chris Rifer There’s also Richard Farley, the club’s official writer, but he often uses his “status” to act like a condescending prick before pseudo-apologizing in a patronizing and insincere manner. So, if that’s your thing, go ahead and give him a follow.
Subreddit: timbers

#RCTID

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2019.01.18 02:11 alittlebent1 Today was my big appointment with my neurosurgeon and I MISSED IT. Full on melt down status.

Today was supposed to be my last big meeting with the neurosurgeon - where we finally specify the surgical approach (laser ablation vs open) and set the date.
I FREAKING MISSED IT.
I missed my appointment. My surgeon is two hours away...and there was this freak accident on the interstate on the way there, shutting the road completely down.
We went from 75 mph to parking lot speed in the matter of moments, so fast that it was lucky WE didn't end up in a wreck.
And we sat there for three hours. Three hours!!
What would have been an hour early turned into well over two hours late.
Luckily I have the number for his nurse, and over the course of several phone tags I was able to communicate with her. It was difficult, because we were in the middle of a dead zone.
They detoured every bit of interstate traffic at the next exit through this 20 mile section of two lane road.
I am SO lucky to have both a skilled and a caring, flexible neurosurgeon. He tried to wait for me as long as he could, until he had to go to a VA clinic. Not a lot of doctors will do that for you, especially surgeons.
And he got me scheduled first thing on the next clinic day, next Wednesday. We're staying the night in Tucson like we usually do - taking no chances this time!
And I'm lucky it wasn't us that caused that parking lot of an interstate... to have not been involved. For all these things I'm grateful. I truly am.
But oh my GOD. I feel like I can't take this anymore. Today was supposed to be THE day. We've been working towards this surgery for over a year and half now. Pushing two years.
I should have answers to all the questions that I took the fucking time to write down and think about. I should *know* right now.
But instead, as usual, it's one more week. Just a few more days. At least it's not two months away. Right?
UGH. UGHHHHHHHHHHHH. 😭😭😭😭😭😭
This was one shitshow of a day.
submitted by alittlebent1 to Epilepsy [link] [comments]


2018.11.24 21:59 Apotropaic_357 PREPARED (sort of) ...For Wrong Mountain.

As the world wrestled with the idea of starting the new Millennia, my thoughts were less grand and more focused. I was mixed on how I felt about Thanksgiving. Not the holiday itself, but how it pertained to my immediate family. When I was young, it was all about the food and playing with cousins that I hadn’t seen in what seemed like forever. I genuinely missed these gatherings the six years I spent in the Army. Being in Ranger Regiment usually meant that Thanksgiving was spent deployed, in refit, training, or being sent to some school needed for Career Advancement. In comparison to my childhood idea of the holiday, this new standard sucked… but that was just to be embraced, outwardly at least.
In the 5 years after getting out I was, by default of age, forced into the Responsible Adult side of Thanksgiving. I will say this new reality didn’t fit the old memories. The family politics and their players had tried to involve me in the shadow games of moral superiority over the most stupid and petty things. I managed to stay out of it by taking every opportunity to bring these shadow games into the light, and doing so in the most blatant and public way… otherwise known as a scorched earth policy. Soon enough, my Aunts, Uncles, Sister, Mother, and Cousins that had joined in what I called “splashing around in the pool of stupid” learned to leave me out of it or suffer the consequences. Two other cousins had this same outlook and we enjoyed ourselves, mostly spending time with our Grandmother. We would regale her with our various misdeeds in the modern time and in turn she would enlighten us to the fact that our family had a long history of jack-assery, often with tales of her own doing. Whether it was just being older, my Grandfather having passed away just before I joined the Army, or a combination of both, my Grandmother seemed to be an entirely different person than the quiet lady I knew as a child and I loved her all the more for it. It was these tales (and the food of course) that made Thanksgiving worth braving the rest of the family.
Well, Grandma had passed-away in January, having just barely made it into the next Millennia and this was to be the first Thanksgiving without her. She had joked that she wasn’t Y2K compliant and would “Shut Down” at the stroke of midnight on New Year’s… she was off by 7 days and a few hours.
The “Family” (this consisting of my Mother and her 4 sisters) had decided that “We must carry on traditions” in spite of the fact that you needed a score card to keep up with who wasn’t talking with whom. The 3 month lead-up to Thanksgiving had me convinced that this holiday was going to be a shit-show worthy of taking gold and silver at the Back-Stabbing & Passive-Aggressive Olympics. So I did what seemed the most prudent way to avoid all if it, I decided to go on a hiking/camping trip… by myself.
Yeah yeah… I know. I can hear the shouts of “Idiot” and “Moron” from the readers passing through the ethers of time. Yet I didn’t go about this half-assed. I told friends and family what I was doing and caught about as much crap for it as you can imagine. I even notified the U.S. Forestry Service. Hell, you needed a permit to camp in the region overnight, and get it in advance with the dates you intend to be there. Add to this, I grew up hunting and camping as well as being a Combat Veteran with survival training, and the prospect of dying from Terminal Stupidity drops significantly. Not to zero mind you, but where's the fun in that?
Anyhow, for a week I painstakingly planned and loaded my internal framed pack, triple checking everything, and tried to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each piece of POGUE gear in it. After all, this wasn’t a combat operation or a big game hunt. The day of, I did a final check while eating a big breakfast. Then, I strapped everything to the KLR-650, put on my riding gear, and rode off into the darkness of pre-morning sunrise.
Taking the I-10 East out of Tucson, I exited at Mescal Road and headed north. It was still too dark to see the Old Tucson Studios movie town that many don’t know about because this one isn’t set up for tourism. Soon enough, I got where the road turns to dirt and enjoyed the off-road aspects of the motorcycle. When I reached the Miller trail head on the east-side of the Rincon Mountains, the eastern sky was just hitting BMNT… or Before Morning Nautical Twilight for those not familiar with the term. Digging into the 20mm ammo cans I had modified into hard bags for the bike, I dug out a length of steel cable and a lock to secure the bike, my helmet, and other riding gear, to the tree I had parked by. Then I hid all the keys under a large-ish nearby rock that i could easily identify and would not likely be moved by anyone else (you do not want to lose your keys while hiking). I downed some of the extra water I had in the hard bags, ate a power bar with it, policed up my gear, Rucked-up, and headed up the trail.
About a ¼ mile out, I realized I had packed too much shit. Heading back down, I cursed myself more thoroughly than some of my instructors had done in the rougher schools I attended while in the Service. Back at the bike, I crammed every piece of expensive non-essential gear into the ammo cans. The lesser items which would not fit, I wrapped in the sleeping bag and strapped it to the forks of the bike. I was down to food, water, first-aid kit, pocket hammock, “woobie” or poncho liner if you prefer, survival pack (consisting of matches, heat tabs, sewing kit, space blanket, filter straw, and other small but useful items), one pair of pants, 2 shirts, 5 pairs of socks, light weight Gore-Tex top & bottom, a mesh bird hunting vest, map, compass, knife, a small lightweight machete, 2 mini-mag flashlights with spare batteries, 100 feet of 550 cord, a 6’X4’ lightweight ground tarp that was brown on one side and bright orange on the other, and a few other lightweight small brick-a-brack items… like toiletries and a book. I had 2 firearms; a survival over-under where the breech and barrels store in the stock. It operated as a break-open over-under and fired a .22 LR from the top barrel and a .410 shell from the bottom barrel. This, plus ammo I had for it weighed about 8 pounds. As pissed as I was, I half considered leaving it behind, but the phrase “There’s no such thing as TOO MANY guns” had been beaten into me… spit-roasting a rabbit or squirrel still appealed and I didn’t want to repack the ammo cans on the bike. The other firearm was a 6” .357 revolver that I had in a holster on its own belt, along with a speed loader forward of the holster, and a 1 quart military canteen with cup to balance out the other side of the pistol belt. The remainder of the 50 round box of semi wadcutters were in the pack. Leaving that behind was never considered. Bears and big cats live on that mountain range and that was the smallest firearm and bullet combination I would consider being suited for purpose. Anyhow, I made sure my lanyard with land-nav compass, coach whistle (emergency signal device), dog whistle (it fucks with bats if they get too “friendly”), and a small LED light were around my neck. I put on my freshly lightened high-speed low-drag pack and restarted my journey. The sun was just over the horizon and I was an hour behind my intended schedule, but I still considered myself fortunate when I thought of all of the Thanksgiving Befuckery that I was going to avoid.
I won’t bore you with the 18 mile long and several thousand foot elevation change hike, but there are a few points of note. A mile or so up the trail there is a barbed-wire fence that separates BLM land from Forest Services land. There’s a metal box on a pole with a sign-in / sign-out sheet for those hikers that want to use the trail and a section to put your permit number if you are going to camp… in this instruction, I dutifully obliged. I noticed that no one had signed in the last 2 days and all the names that were on the list had signed out. Weird as it was, it appeared I had the trail to myself. Though on second thought, it was not that surprising seeing as how it was the day before Thanksgiving. There was also a sign that that stated in official language there were “NO FIREARMS ALOWED” to which I dutifully ignored as a test to weed out the stupid that believed Mother Nature’s critters would take that sign into consideration when dealing with bliss-ninny hikers.
This done, I was back on the march. About 8 miles up is where the trail splits in two directions; the right hand trail leads you to Mica Mountain, the left hand trail goes to Rincon Peak, and past that it leads to a place called Wrong Mountain. I had been to Mica Mountain before. A buddy of mine is on a Hot Shot Fire-Crew and I had hiked up there with him once. There’s even a primitive cabin up there for their use, if you know how to find it. This time I was going left. It wasn’t long before I was into the pine trees. It was mid-day, but the temperature was lower that when I had started out down in the desert. I passed by Happy Valley Lookout, where you get a beautiful view of the valley below. By midafternoon, I was at the base of the rock formation that made up Rincon Peak, tired and sore to be sure, but in a good way. I was happy to be where I was and I had time to set camp before the sun went down.
I knew it would be colder up here than on the valley floor, but I began to suspect that it was going to be worse than I had first thought. The idea for having a fire near the rock face to reflect the heat and setting up the hammock with a tarp fly wasn’t going to be the best solution so I improvised. Moving a hundred yards east off the ridgeline and staying near the rock face, I built a debris hut. This wasn’t difficult, it had been 5 years or more since any large fire had torched the mountain, there had only been a few smaller wildfires that had been contained in their early stages, and even then, none had come through this area. Also, this place didn’t see a lot of visitors for the obvious reason of it being a slog to get to and required a permit to camp. The simple act of clearing out a proper campsite and a relatively small area around it provided enough raw materials to build a debris hut with 3 feet of pine needle insulation and enough discarded branches, twigs, and deadwood to keep me comfortably in firewood for longer than I meant to stay.
With camp set, I ate dinner from my supplies, but decided to keep a cold camp that night. I knew I was more tired than I currently felt, and didn’t want to fall asleep leaving a fire unattended. I did layout a small cooking fire pit and readied it for the morning. Coco-fee (hot chocolate and instant coffee) is a favorite of mine, but only when camping for some reason. I had begun to stiffen up from the exertion of the day; I dosed myself with 800mg of Motrin, watered a thirsty looking tree some distance from camp, and was prepared to sleep the sleep of the righteous. For a moment I thought I could smell wood-smoke, but there were areas around here that had been burnt and the wind was picking up, so I chalked it up to that.
I pushed my pack inside the debris hut and scooted my way in, pulling the door-plug I had constructed behind me. The thick bed of pine needles under the nylon hammock and ground tarp was comfortable and my Woobie over top was good enough to capture my body heat until the rest of the interior warmed up through respiration. Using a flashlight, I dug out the paperback book I had brought and made sure my pistol belt was near at hand. The smell of pine was soothing and after a dozen pages or so I realized I was reading the same paragraph for the third or fourth time. I dog-eared the page, turned out the light, and was asleep before I realized how comfortable I felt.
I woke up to nature’s alarm clock; I went from deep sleep to wide awake and aware. What I was aware of, was the fact that within the next couple of moments, I was going to piss like a race horse and I had a limited time to do so in a manner that didn’t have it all over me and my sleeping area.
I shoved the debris plug from the entrance and practically sprung from the shelter. The sun was up and I was temporarily blinded. As I fumbled with my zipper and blinked my eyes, I became aware that I was not alone. Several deer were in the camp; their white tails were raised in alarm and their dark eyes were staring at me with alarm. After 3 seconds of forever, they bolted and I waddled out of camp in over-filled bladder pain and relieved the pressure. This took long enough that I had time to replay greeting my earlier campmates, and the laughter made the bladder pressure hurt more.
Coco-fee, food, water, and Motrin, along with stretching out my sore and tired muscles and joints, had me feeling pretty good and I was looking at the map to plan a route to hike. It was earlier than I first thought, seems that being close to 8000 feet elevation allows the sun to hit you sooner than the valleys below. I decided to skirt the western side of the rock formation of Rincon Peak and travel through the saddle between it and Wrong Mountain, then circle that oddly named landmark back to the saddle, and finally make my way along the east side of Rincon Peak to end up back at camp. With my pistol belt and its canteen, the mesh hunting vest with various rounds and shells in the pockets, map and food in my cargo pockets, a 2 quart canteen slung across like a bandoleer, lanyard with its various objects around my neck, hunting knife, and survival rifle put together, I stashed everything else in the shelter and headed out.
Crossing the saddle is where things changed; prior to this, the game trails I followed were well used and I could make out recent tracks of animals. The birds were plentiful and noisy. The squirrels were making their displeasure to my presence known by their chittering and banging branches together by jumping up and down on them… this changed when I reached Wrong Mountain. The trails were unused, the few birds I saw looked to be “just passing through” as quickly as possible and remained silent, even the trees seemed off… as if this area didn’t provide enough water or nutrients to sustain healthy growth.
I decided to skip the circumnavigation, and just climb to the summit to get a look around. The oppressiveness continued, but was low-key enough not to deter me. Once up top, I wandered about looking at the terrain below. Something to the south-east was bothering me and it took some time to work out what it was. There was a double ridgeline with a depression in-between, but on my map it was shown as a single ridge with a wide top. There was a pool of water down there and the only water shown on the map in this area was from streams that were intermittent and depended on rainfall or snowmelt… this was either something new or deliberately ignored by the USGS and I was considering going closer and taking a look.
Then I saw something… or at least I thought I had. Something moved in that caldera of the pond that should not be there. It was several hundred yards away, so I knew that whatever it was, it had to be of significant size; a coyote, deer, bear, or something like that in order to register. I lamented leaving the binoculars with the bike, but chalked it up to “decisions have consequences” and watched awhile more. I was rewarded with a couple signs of movement over the next half hour, then I saw “IT” for an instant as it broke cover and traversed an open area, only the disappear under a rocky overhang.
Now when I say “it”, that wasn’t what passed through my mind at the time. Whatever “it” was appeared to be humanoid-ish and moved like a cross between a stalking cat and a scared gecko. ‘A starving mountain lion with the mange chasing a cracked-out squirrel through the rocks’ is the best I could rationally come up with. The irrational part of my brain was saying “Whatever dude, if that’s what it takes to get you to say “Fuck it, I'm outta here” it works for me” with the understanding that escalating the description was an option if that wasn’t enough for the rational part to take notice.
I went back to camp the same way I came. The map said going around the east side of Rincon Peak would be faster, but it also said that the area I just saw didn’t exist. This wasn’t a hard distinction, or decision to make… I took the known path. On the way back, some things became apparent; the creepy vibe of Wrong Mountain and seeing that whatzit had gotten to me more than just a bit. I was not getting off this mountain today unless I hiked after dark. Hiking in the dark on unimproved and confusing trails is beyond stupid. My camp was going to need some improvements security-wise. Food and sleep are your friends, because fatigue and stressors are enemies of rational thought and good decision making.
I ate like a post-apocalyptical king that afternoon. I consumed everything that was in a can and left the bagged stuff alone. With the 3 cans leftover from yesterday, I had a total of 9. I also had 700 feet of strong-ish twine from the guts of the 550 cord and these together with some rocks, I made tripwire sound makers around the camp. I piled up more debris over and around my shelter so that it looked like a natural swell in the land, rather than something constructed. I easily tripled the amount of wood for the fire and placed it against the rock face where more light would be reflected from it. I checked which trees could be easily climbed if so needed, and I had strewn as much brittle and entangling branches and twigs as I could around the perimeter of the campsite and my shelter. I even placed several stout branches around camp to use as cudgels if necessary. I added the hunting knife and machete to the pistol belt and put the first-aid kit and survival kit in the big pouch of the hunting vest. After taking care of bodily needs, I packed up everything else, set my alarm on my watch for midnight, because that was about the time the moon would make an appearance and most predators operate when the moon is out. So with a flashlight in each pocket, I climbed into my hidey-hole with the survival rifle next to me in order to get some sleep. I figured 5 hours would see me through the rest of the night and down the mountain at first light… I ended up getting six.
Ever turn off an alarm clock and forget doing so? ... I have. Ever remember that working out well? ... me neither.
From my time in the Military, I have tinnitus. Some tones I have trouble hearing and others are like an icepick in the ear. The high-pitched [POIET] noise that woke me up was of the icepick variety. It wasn’t loud, but it was oddly uncomfortable… dentist drill uncomfortable. I checked my watch and it was just after 1am. “Way to go asshole” I thought to myself. I could hear something else as well; almost a language but not quite. The best way I can describe it, is that it sounded like a mixture of Mandarin Chinese and Somali then put through a translator for… waterfall, I guess.
“Time to raise some hell” I thought to myself… even the voice in my head sounded dubious about this prospect. I turned on both flashlights, but kept them in my pockets, placed the whistle in my mouth, checked that the .357 was where it was supposed to be, grabbed the rifle, and gathered my feet under me to make a spectacular exit from my shelter.
My preparations must not have gone unnoticed, because the soft-spoken-klingon-with-a-lisp speech increased, there were several more [POIET] noises, and there were a few places that I could hear scratching or digging at my shelter. Jumping out in sound and fury may not be the best decision, but waiting silently to be dug out was an even worse one.
With that in mind I burst out, pushing the plug with the rifle in my left hand, then raising it I fired both barrels into the air while blowing on the whistle and drawing the .357 from the holster. As I dropped the rifle and dug for one of the flashlights it dawned on me that the whistle wasn’t making any noise. “Wrong whistle asshole, that’s the dog whistle” my inner smartass was kind enough to inform me. There was nothing for it… one hand had the pistol and was trying to cover several shapes wriggling on the ground and the other was digging for a flashlight.
I was taking a breath when I pulled the flashlight out and got my first good look at whatever these things were. The closest one was about 9 feet away from me and had just stopped writhing on the ground. Being on all fours, it looked up at me just as I shined the light on it. Now my first impression was “MONSTER… Fuck off…You DIE”. Since then, I’ve had a bit more time to reflect on it and describe these things a bit better. Take a lanky person about 5 feet tall, shorten the legs and extend the abdomen about 5 inches. Beef-up the shoulders and extend the forearms to match the new waistline… so about 5 inches. The hands were large for their body size and they had 4 fingers, but the palms were bifurcated between the 2nd and 3rd fingers giving them a much larger range of motion, the thumb was located farther down by the wrist, and they had retractable claws about ¾ of an inch long. The head was larger than a person’s would be at that height and somewhat shaped like a cat, only with larger eyes and a muzzle more protruded and wider. Now, remove every bit of hair and put scales in its place. Not like snake or fish scales, more like a cross between a Gila-monster and a horned toad… pebbled with spikes in various areas and patterns. The eyes were slit pupiled, like a cat’s only a dull lifeless grey. The overall color of its “skin” was a molted combination of greys and browns, with some dull yellowish highlights. The weirdest part (subjective, I know) were the ears; they were about where you would expect them to be on a cat, but they popped in or out like an anemone and were shaped like an inverted umbrella as well as being a bright red. They could also rotate independently like the eyes of a chameleon.
Anyhow, I’d just stopped blowing into the dog whistle and had my light shining in this creature’s face, when its radar-ears pop out and swiveled toward me with the head following suit. I swear… it looked like it blew me a kiss, but it made that [POIET] noise when it did so. This close and without 3+ feet of detritus between us, it was more than a little uncomfortable. My eyes went a bit blurry and when they refocused, this thing had its teeth barred and its hand extended, moving in impossible ways that looked anything but friendly with those claws showing… so I shot it right in the face.
There were 7 or 8 in my field of view that flinched and shook their heads when I fired and I could hear a couple more on the other side of the debris hut. They all stopped at once and their ears popped back out. Soon enough they were all focused on me. I had closed my mouth in determination and half exhaled through my nose and half through the dog whistle and they reacted like a bunch of dogs with a mouth full of bees. Seeing this, I blew harder into the whistle and let off 5 more shots and reloaded using the speed loader before I had to take a few deep breaths. I had killed 2 more outright with another quickly dying. Two others I'm sure I wounded, but not enough to immobilize them. With the whistle silent and hand cannon not going off, the rest hauled ass. The two injured creatures pointed themselves downhill and ran straight into the trip lines I had set up, causing a hell of a racket, and an ass-over-tea-kettle roll that they recovered poorly from, moving off at a brisk limp. The others went straight at the rock face which startled me, mostly from the three that came over the debris hut and passed within a few feet of me without so much as glancing my way. I figured that when they hit the rock face they would be bunched up and easy targets. Only, when they reached the rock face they lit up it like an F1 racecar hitting a straightaway… this little demonstration of mobility unnerved me more than a little.
I refilled the speed loader, picked up and reloaded the rifle, put a .22 caliber mercy round into the base of the dying creatures head, and set fire to the whole pile of wood I had stacked next to the rock face. I wasn’t worried about the fire spreading; there was no wind to speak of, and I had cleared the area around it of flammable debris. Then I drank some water before letting the adrenaline and terror shakes have their way with me as I contemplated my next move… throwing more wood on the burning pile as I did so.
Man, I wanted to grab my shit and bug-out. The urge to do so was palpable, but it was a losing proposition and I knew it was just the fear talking. These things were fast, could see in the dark better than me, and could probably track me by sound alone. Fear can be useful; it will keep you alert and allow you to do things that your rational mind would dismiss as impossible. At the same time, you have to be on the lookout for the stupid decisions it can bring to mind… it’s a double edged sword with a slippery hilt.
I holstered the pistol and took the other flashlight out then got to work. I dragged the bodies of the creatures near the quickly building fire, because I wanted to keep an eye on them and I wanted any of the other creatures to see what awaited them if they came back. They were lighter than I thought they’d be. I could have picked them up easily, but their blood was bluish-black and smelled horrible. There was no way I wanted any of it on me. This was also the time I got to inspect them more closely and convince myself through pinching my arm that this wasn’t some weird dream.
I policed up my spent casings (I couldn’t find the .22’s, but oh well) and grabbed my pack. It was cold out, so I draped my woobie over my neck and put on the light weight Gore-Tex top and bottoms, and then put the mesh vest on over that. I used some of the outer jacket from the 550 cord to make a lanyard for the pistol and a crude sling for the rifle. I did not want to drop or misplace those. I tied the remainder of the line to my pack and climbed a tree that was about 40 feet from the fire and from the debris hut on the uphill side, if you plotted the 3 points, you’d end up with close to an equilateral triangle. I then pulled my pack up and secured it to the trunk near me. I was about 20 feet up; this somewhat obscured my view of the area, but it also obscured my position from anything on the ground. It also wasn’t high enough to kill me if I fell, and if I had to bail, I could count on not being debilitated or severely injured IF I landed right. Still, it was not something I wanted to try unless I had no choice. I found a spot where I could rest my feet on one branch, sit on another and lean against a third. I was close to the trunk, with it between me and the fire, and could easily peek my head around to keep an eye on the area. Was it perfect? ... No, but I was woefully short of the concrete bunker with automated mini-guns and grenade launchers that I wanted at the moment, because fighting fair is for suckers… this would have to do.
I settled in as best as I could and reacquainted myself with the discipline needed to stand what I hoped to be a long and monotonous watch. It was 1:32am, but it had felt like only a few minutes had passed since I woke up to that strange [POIET] noise. In contrast, the next hour and a half seemed to go on forever. I occupied my time thinking about what capabilities they might have. The fact that these things that SHOULD NOT EXIST were unequivocally real, this opened up a whole range of possibilities that wouldn’t be considered in the “sane world”. I was a fan of sci-fi and fantasy books, but read very little in the horror genre mainly because it paled in comparison to the brutality of war. An active imagination can be a horrible thing at times… I drew the line a Predator-style cloaking, flying, and ranged weapons of an advanced nature, because if they had those I was royally fucked. As the fire began to burn down, I had an idea. I put 20 of the .22 rounds inside my toothbrush case and weighed it down the best I could with a broken-up heat tab and tree bark. The idea was to toss it into the fiery coals to create a distraction when they cooked off. My ability to make the throw accurately was up for debate… 40 feet from an elevated position into a kiddie-pool sized area with a rock backdrop, stressed out, and without practice, I gave it a 60% chance which is better than no chance at all.
Just before 3am, I could hear noises that were distinctly different from the normal noises of the forest with a very slight breeze. The firelight from the larger pieces of wood that still burned reflected from two of the creatures’ eyes as they crept into camp. They came from the direction that the injured ones had fled and it dawned on me that I had not repaired the trip lines in that area… yeah, I felt like an idiot. They made their way to the bodies and prodded them as well as check out the immediate area around themselves. It was obvious that they were keeping most of their attention on the debris hut. Soon enough they picked up one of the bodies and did this weird hop-run back the way they had come from. A bit later, six more slunk in and removed the other three bodies. This was fine by me; call it the tradition of letting an enemy collect their fallen if you wish. The truth is that if they were concentrated on that, they probably weren’t interested in coming after me… but I wasn’t going to bet on it and let my guard down.
The barest of change in the eastern part of the sky hinted that the night was going to end and I was beginning to hope that this was over except for a long walk out of here. Then I heard one of the cans from another part of the trip lines rattle… and just like that, over a dozen creatures seemingly charged out of nowhere and from every direction. They surrounded the debris hut and started thrusting what looked like fucking spears into it with a fury that was frightening to see.
Combat math happens quickly. There were a lot of them and one of me, they were still interested in killing me and I didn’t want to die. They had close range weapons and were bunched together for the moment and I had a ranged weapon with which to take advantage of it. This time I put both whistles in my mouth, picked my order of targets, and with a deep intake of breath… I had at it. A minute later, I had fired off 12 shots with the pistol, 2 shots with the rifle, less than half of them had fled like scalded cats downhill to the east, sans spears, and leaving the remainder either dead or dying near the shelter. I dumped the 2nd batch of expended brass into my lap with the brass from the 1st go around, and reloaded the pistol with loose rounds from my pocket. I put the spent brass in another pocket, and then I reloaded the rifle.
I lowered my pack and climbed down. Six creatures were DRT… or Dead-Right-There. By the time I gave mercy rounds to two of the severely wounded, the third had died of its wounds. All but one of the dead was from the pistol, the other being a lucky high spinal hit from the .22 rifle. I know for fact that I had hit one with the .410 with #6 shot, wherever that one was… it wasn’t happy.
I had no idea if they would call it quits, if they were going to come back, or how long it would be before they did. I did know that this trick wasn’t going to work again. They came in all fat and happy this last time, the fact that they were smart enough to be tool users convinced me they wouldn’t make that mistake again. With that in mind, I made the decision to shag-ass out of there while I had the chance to do so unobserved, but I wasn’t going to leave anything for them behind. Knife in hand, I gathered up the trip lines and cans, jamming all of it into an empty pouch in my pack. I gathered up the spears they left stuck into my shelter… there were 16 of them and they had well lapped and secured stone blades, they were also decorated with carvings. I was going to throw them into the fire but had another idea. They obviously had some intellect, so perhaps a little psychological warfare was in order.
I dragged the bodies and laid them out head-to-foot in a rough circle. I shattered the stone tips of the spears against the rock face and placed one with each body, I positioned their arms like they were holding them to their chests. A common design in the carvings was a 5-pionted star. So I used five of the remaining spear shafts to make this shape in the center of the circle. The last two I stuck into the center of the design. I didn’t know what they’d make of it, but I was trying for something like “Your weapons are shit, this is what happens when you fuck with me, and if you don’t knock it off I’ll kill you all”… I know, tough talk for one guy that had gotten lucky through preparation, but now I was GOING BIG so that I may actually GO HOME.
I wolfed down 2 protein bars and drank the remaining water I had in my pack, leaving me the canteen on my side and the 2 quart canteen I had slung for the trip down the mountain. I also stashed the Gore-Tex and woobie away, as I was going to be generating heat through movement. I tossed the toothbrush holder with the .22 bullets into a not-so-hot part the red glowing coal bed that once was my bonfire. Then I headed uphill, over the ridgeline, and toward the trail that lead out of here. I checked my watch, it was 5:32am and the sky was starting to lighten in the east… good ol’ BMNT and the high places get the first light.
20 minutes later I heard the .22 bullets cook off, I had figured that my little party favor was a dud after about 10 minutes of silence from that direction and was happy to be wrong. I was over a half mile away by then (you try moving in rough terrain, in the near-dark, trying to be quiet, not breaking some important bone you may need, and see how far you get in that time) and I had just found the trail heading north and to eventual civilization. 10 minutes later I was over a mile away and I heard an “Ungodly Hue and Cry” come from the direction of the camp. This was the sign to start the “jog for 100 paces / walk for 100 paces” technique that conserves energy and eats up distance.
A few hours later and I was about half way back, downhill being inherently quicker than uphill and I was properly motivated. I did start worrying about running into other hikers so I packed away the rifle, machete, and pistol belt. The speed loader and knife I kept in my pockets. I emptied the vest into the pack and wrapped it around the pistol so I could keep it in my hand without scaring any bliss-ninny I ran into on the trail… as I was still in the “no guns allowed zone”. I also took some time to eat, drink, and change into my last pair of clean socks.
The hiding of weapons was all preparation with no payoff, I ran into no one. I signed out at the gate with the metal box on a post, strapped the pistol back on my side since I was on gun friendly BLM land and made my way to my bike.
When I got to it, there was a present for me. A 3 foot long piece of wood with about a 2 inch cross section; the carvings looked new, there was 13 black stones and 5 red ones embedded into it, a bird’s skull of some sort (turned out to be a Raven) was attached to the top, and with the middle 10 inches were wrapped in a leather that looked like the pebbled skin of the creatures I had run into. The largest carving was of a five-pointed star with two lines coming from the center… like a “V”, only without the bottom part connected.
Yeah, I just about shit myself. As I looked around, I realized that the same silence I experienced on Wrong Mountain was happening here and now. It was 1:45pm, the sun was out, and I was off the fucking trail. My idea of impossible was destroyed again. The good news was that I was armed and I WAS NOT being attacked… was this a sign of respect? ... an apology? … a warning? … What The absolute Fuck?
I decided to take a chance and go with the “Respect” idea. After all, if they could make this “gift” and beat me down here moving cross-country, they could have theoretically caught up to me and ambushed me if they had wished to do so. All I do know is that my head was more confident in this line of reasoning than my knees were. I dropped my pack and picked up the “totem stick” (for lack of a better word) and pretended to examine it closely as I held it up to the light at different angles. What I was really doing was looking past it for anything that looked out of place… and saw nothing.
Just in case something was expected in return, I took the LED light and dog whistle off my lanyard and put them in my pocket. The light would die eventually and I wasn’t giving them my most effective secret weapon just in case I was wrong. The compass and metal coach whistle would be easily replaced with a trip to the sporting goods store.
I kept the totem stick in my left hand and held above my head, my right hand was on my pistol, and with the coach whistle I blew the “shave and a haircut” tune at regular intervals as I walked about 200 yards up the trail. I'm not sure why I chose that tune, but I suspect it was the most complicated thing I could play with the least amount of chance of fucking it up. I left the lanyard hanging from a shrub a couple feet off the ground and tried to walk back calmly, but it turned more into a march so I didn’t break out into a run. When a got back, I retrieved my keys and methodically packed everything onto the bike. I was putting on my riding gear, and just before I put on my helmet I heard the coach whistle. It sounded tentative at first, but got stronger in no time. Soon enough I was hearing “shave and a haircut” and the sound was racing up the landscape. It was easy to audibly track and on a ridgeline about a half mile away… I saw something that looked like a ‘starved and mangy mountain lion chasing a cracked-out squirrel’ make its way over that terrain feature and disappear from sight. Soon after, the whistle noises faded away and the normal sounds of nature resumed in the parking area at the base of Miller Trail Head.
This happened almost 18 years ago and my ‘hiking/camping while alone’ days are about over. I haven’t completely stopped doing it and don’t intend to for a while yet, but I have a family of my own now and have made some changes since that trip; I’ve never returned to that area for anything that contained the word “Overnight” in the plan, my idea of being prepared has changed drastically, my totem stick is prominently hung in any camp I make no matter where I decide to set up, I pay far more attention to the sounds of “normal” nature when I'm in unpopulated areas, and if I ever hear a coach whistle play “shave and a haircut” when in the back country… I'm heading the other way, with a firearm in my hand, and a dog whistle clenched in my teeth. This hasn’t put an end to all of the camping weirdness I’ve experienced since then, but I'm certain it has cut down on the frequency of these experiences.
Perhaps I’ll share some others at a later date.
submitted by Apotropaic_357 to DrCreepensVault [link] [comments]


2018.10.25 09:39 GiversBot /u/quattic [REQ] was deleted from /r/borrow on 2018-10-25 (t3_9qttry up 1.38 days)

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[REQ] ($950) - (#Tucson, AZ, USA), ($1150 on 12/18/2018), (PayPal, Venmo or anything else that works for lender)

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Hello, I need $950 in order to pay off an erroneous court fee from a speeding ticket I was issued over a year and a half ago. I satisfied the requirements and paid my fine but this is the 4th time I have gotten notice that my license will be suspended if I don't pay, and I have finally set a court date to dispute this charge.
The court requires the payment in order to dismiss the order for suspension even though they are in the wrong. Once I have my court date and am able to prove that I paid my fees, they will then refund the money and it takes up to 2 weeks to appear in my bank account. My court date is for 12/3/18.
submitted by GiversBot to borrowdeletes [link] [comments]


2018.06.27 00:45 Spiritual_War Don't forget about our Veterans! Around May 30th, a sex trafficking camp was found, since then, Veterans on Patrol (VOP) has been locking down the Arizona Desert. Since then, a BP agent has been shot, a BP agent hit and ran a native, and arrests have been made. This is not ending until we win!

Welcome to the Tucson, Arizona updates thread. Many have forgotten about Tucson, Arizona and the things that have been taking place there the past solid month. This is a thread to help everyone get up to date.
For those new to hearing this, start with watching this video footage of a Cartel Trafficking Rest Camp that was found with a rape tree, and womans/childrens garments and more. Also a bloody knife was discovered, and then Cemex came in and bull dozed over the whole camp (it was on cemex property)
Original Camp Found: https://youtu.be/k4dIjJwwjzE
Blood splatter seen on the tree restraints: https://i.imgur.com/fNz1cNr.jpg
The weird part that makes this weirder? Around 10 years ago, tens of thousands of black plastic coffins were found and shown by Alex Jones (I am not a fan of Jones but this is pertinent), those coffins he was showing? THEY WERE ON CEMEX PROPERTY.
Video proof that the original camp that was found was bull dozed over: https://youtu.be/fg04FlvjLfA
Not even days later as VOP made a commitment to start locking down these Cartel Trafficking Corridors, Border Patrol came into the lime light (Arizona Border Patrol, at that)
The first event that broke, was a Border Patrol agent (heavily suited up, this was cartel hot spot territory) getting ambushed and shot 5+ times.
Here is the article: http://www.breitbart.com/texas/2018/06/12/exlusive-border-patrol-agent-shot-in-tucson-secto
Not even a little while later, a Border Patrol Agent was caught on Video hitting a native and driving off. This man that was hit, is a volunteer with VOP and managed to catch this on GoPro. I have not been able to find any follow up with the BP agent that hit him and ran.
https://youtu.be/ZXHndd1kBhM
A threat? An accident? A message? You decide!
Independent researchers and youtubers/bloggers started coming down to Tucson to help and document/volunteer and one such man, DarkSkyWatcher74 joined VOP on a sweep. They were tipped off to an abadoned rancher property that had been rumored to have cartel activity. Upon arrival, meth pipes, and other paraphernalia are found. A hog/pigs head is tied to a tree on the property and the compound itself is heavily fortified yet unlocked for some reason.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HvBo09LpuDY
Teams started coming down to help VOP from all over. Even a team from Australia!
This is their final thoughts after 10 days of volunteering: https://youtu.be/nUgPZbqquNc
Craig "Sawman" Sawyer originally came down and agreed that rape trees and more were present and then 180'd a few days later, probably through threats or intimidation. Regardless, these are Craig's first thoughts when he arrived and was interviewed by a local news station
https://youtu.be/81EAhYLfFvA
Cemex is a very large cement company (poor cement, at that) and the original trafficking camp was found on Cemex property. What gives, CEMEX?! Coffins and trafficking camps?
Look at this eerie photo
https://i.imgur.com/JTDl7rK.jpg
What has happened since VOP launched a 3 year commitment? Not only has all the above taken place, this is only a small fraction of what has been going on. Recently, 56 immigrants were arrested crossing through Arizona. Being lead by cartel? Or seeking better lives?
http://www.kptv.com/story/38491328/border-patrol-agents-arrest-57-undocumented-immigrants
Here is a 40 minute video on a operation backyard brawl update (what VOP has been doing and up to)
https://youtu.be/XBehjVmRPB4
Don't think rape trees are real? Think again. Watch this video, of Arizona ranchers that have lived on the Arizona border and describe the state of affairs from the 80's to present day. Rape trees are brought up. This is not new. We simply have been allowing it to go on for too long. BP has never had enough resources to secure the border from cartel hands. They have cracked down extensively on the border, but now because of this, all border crossing spots into the USA are Cartel owned and operated and profited off of. Weapons, drugs, woman, children, come through the borders and they have to pay cartels to cross, often times getting sucked into forced slavery should they not be able to have the means to pay the cartel.
https://youtu.be/IVukrVJRBTA
Here is a 1 minute video on trafficking facts.
https://youtu.be/IRaOSzIr_oQ
How can you keep up to date with VOP?
Look for "VOP Alpha CO. Team Pulaski" on FaceBook Groups and you will find A LOT more information and up to date news.
This is a growing volunteer operation, and VOP is not new. Before this camp was even found, they have been helping Veterans of the local Tucson Arizona Community and have been dedicated to them sense. They have also saved 30+ children from sexual trafficking. They have the local support of citizens, Tucson Police Department, and more, and are no joke. They don't even accept money...
Don't forget about these brave, true, patriots, working boots on the ground while skeptics sit in moral infant high chairs judging what they are doing. Don't give up on Tucson. Don't forget out veterans.
If you have any questions or want any additional photos, videos, or anything, please ask. Otherwise feel free to check out their Facebook page for up to date information, as they have a 3 year commitment laid out to secure the Arizona Border.
God speed Patriots! We stand with you! We stand up together!
submitted by Spiritual_War to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2018.06.05 05:15 rockycrab Silly question but is it weird for a single male in his mid-twenties to drive a crossover SUV?

I was planning to wait for the 2019 Corolla hatchback with the 6-speed manual because it looked like the perfect upgrade to my current 2000 Corolla. Was browsing autotrader today and saw an ad for a used 2017 Hyundai Tucson at a great price. Seriously thinking about taking it for a test drive. I know strangers won't give a shit, but there's a little voice in the back of my head that tells me that a future date would silently judge me for driving a crossover as a single man without kids. Is this just crazy talk or is there some truth to that?
submitted by rockycrab to cars [link] [comments]